Turkish university students attitude towards childrens rights

 

 

A study of University Students Attitudes Towards Stateless Bidoon Childrens Rights in Kuwait

Abstract

This study examined the Kuwaiti University students views about thestateless childrens rights. The study sample of – students of Kuwait University in the State of Kuwait completed – questions modified survey concerning their attitudes towards stateless childrens rights in Kuwait. A likert scale was adopted and modvied from . For each item the factor analysis technique and cronbach alpha formula were used to test validity and reliability of the scale, and total correlation was calculated. The frequency and percent used for the profile of students gender, faculty, grade and human rights courses taken. A t-test was udes to see whether or not there was a significant difference between students attitude according to variables. As a results,

. The result also found that

Keywords: Childhood, without-nationality, Stateless, Bidoon, Childrens rights, Early Childhood

Introduction

 

During the past decades, there is a significant debate about childrens rights owing to the United Nations works, actions, and perspectives on the underprivileged lives of children. The United Nations on the Rights of the Children (UNCRC) has focused great efforts to reinstate childrens rights in societies with an international standard. According to McAleese (2019, p. 5), a prominent work has been conducted to establish a strong right in childrens academic discourse, including autonomy and participation rights where childrens rights are implemented with deliberated policy measures and effective practices. The global childrens rights industry is now emphasizing the need to establish better parental concerns to cooperate with the works carried out by the UNCRC authority with much greater care and scholarly work.

Vandenhole, Desmet, & Reynaert (2015, p. 102) pointed out that the process of educationalization in terms of childhood perspectives is devoted to systemic functioning, clarifying that children living in many western societies should gain complete rights to freedom and power in raising their concerns and voices. Childrens rights relating to legal pluralism are now standing at the core value, resulting in global societies applying ethical practices towards childrens civil liberties and privileges in inter-family relations. Children are now given significant importance due to the social change in societies devoted by United Nations efforts, leading to more realization of enhanced childrens welfare.

A study and research conducted by Jacobs (2021, p. 20) revealed that parental family relationships have gained much scholarly attention due to wider childrens rights position status in diverse societies. The conceptual framework of child development is a semi-autonomous factor, calling for more legal pluralism in . The childrens childhood lives need a more deliberated social constructionist approach for a better-improved future for an individual child. The deepening understanding of childrens rights can better be preserved if human rights are truly complied with and facilitated similar to other parental, domestic, and womens rights highly observed in societies today.

There is observed a significant rise in stateless children in Kuwait, necessitating the government to initiate strict corrective measures to facilitate such childrens rights. The Committee on the Rights of Children in Kuwait now considers protecting childrens rights in terms of disabilities, climate change, air pollution, and vulnerable health effects (Bessler, 2022, p. 161). The Kuwaiti government and authorities have exclusively set a monthly allowance and budget to facilitate the needs of stateless children, resulting in eliminating the number of homelessness of children to a significant number.

A study and research conducted by Tobin (2019, p. 519) revealed that there have been established different children rehabilitation programs to serve stateless children in Kuwait to bring awareness about environmental health and climate change, particularly in schooling activities. The Kuwaiti government focuses on improving childrens health with great accountability, resulting in delivering several ramifications to such delegated child development responsibility. The Kuwaiti Human Rights at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has established numerous social benefits in its child development plans to raise the standards and value of stateless children in the country.

The Kuwaiti government has further introduced childhood development initiatives focused on working towards child promotion activities, children’s life protection, and children’s human rights. The national authorities of Kuwait have also applied some natural and environmental initiatives to facilitate child participation in schools and societies with high life and living quality standards. An example includes the development of specialized centers in schools and societies where the healthcare level of stateless children is focused with great care, accountability, and perspectives. This strategic outcome has led the stateless children to save themselves from everyday violence, abuse, and harsh behaviors under different enacted laws and regulations that are witnessed against children in schools, societies, minority groups, and the entire nation.

According to the United Nations, stateless people are not considered citizens by any country’s laws. Statelessness is mainly prevalent in the Arab Gulf States (Abdulkarim, 2017). These are nontraditional communities that immigrated into the area among other unregistered or unrecognized natives. Apart from the United Arab Emirates (Dubai, to be specific), Kuwait is the other country with a significant number of stateless people popularly known as Bidoon (Abdulkarim, 2017). The Bidoon have lived in Kuwait for many years, and their family generations can be traced within the country’s borders (International Coalition for the Rights of the Stateless, 2015). When the country got its independence in 1961, only two-thirds of the population were granted citizenship, and the rest were branded Bidoon Jinsiya, meaning ‘without citizenship.’ The number of stateless people in Kuwait is uncertain, but there are likely more than 150,000 Bidoon in Kuwait, and their population is steadily growing across the country (Mansoor, 2021).

For various reasons, the composition and status of the Bidoon in Kuwait have been eroded over time. They were once legal residents in the country but not anymore. They have since been listed as illegal residents and, as a result, have lost access to various government services. In this line, one of the social problems in Kuwait is the government’s restrictive measures that prevent stateless Bidoon children from learning in public schools or accessing other public services (Mansoor, 2021). Education in Kuwaiti public schools is restricted only to children with the country’s government-issued identification documents (International Coalition for the Rights of the Stateless, 2015). As a result, all stateless children have no access to government facilities such as public schools, and due to economic difficulties, they cannot afford private education either. Therefore, the restrictions on the Bidoon echo a sense of hopelessness for one of the most impoverished communities in Kuwait. The government’s regulations have elicited mixed reactions from various groups, and in that regard, this paper aims to unearth university students’ attitudes toward the stateless Bidoon children’s rights. A more specific aim will be to establish whether a relationship exists between university students taking human rights courses and their attitudes toward stateless children’s rights.

 

 

Literature review.

Various studies have been conducted on attitudes and perceptions towards children’s rights, and one common factor in these studies is the survey approach used in most of them. One study was conducted by Karaman-Kepenekci, 2006 on students’ attitudes towards children’s rights in Turkey. The researcher surveyed 350 volunteer students and used a Likert scale to measure their attitude towards children’s rights against variables like gender and grade. A t-test was then used to examine significant differences in students’ attitudes towards children’s rights in line with the selected variables. The study established that female students taking human rights courses had a favorable attitude towards children’s rights, and the student’s grades were not a discriminating factor in their attitudes towards children’s rights. The study recommended including human rights courses as subjects across all faculties. Erkut et al., 2022 conducted a similar survey in Istanbul but focused on the attitudes of final-year nursing faculty students towards children’s rights. They sampled 159 students and collected data using a Children’s Rights Attitude scale and other information forms. The data was then analyzed using various tests, such as the Pearson correlation coefficient, among other descriptive methods. The results were that students generally had a positive attitude towards children’s rights, and their sociodemographic characteristics did not influence their attitudes. For more detailed results, the researchers recommended similar studies be conducted but with larger sample groups.

Far from the students, relevant studies have also been conducted on teachers’ attitudes towards children’s rights. Kahraman & Sezer, 2017 surveyed the relationship between teacher candidates’ attitudes towards children’s rights and their state of liking children in Turkey. The scanning model design was used, and 268 teacher candidates attending various departments were selected for the study. The Statistical Packages for Social Scientists (SPSS) software was used to analyze the data through the Pearson correlation coefficient, among other tests. The attitude scale showed preschool teacher candidates had the highest average score while mathematics teacher candidates had the lowest score. The difference in scores across departments was also not so high. The study recommended that children’s rights courses be included in teachers’ training programs, among other ways of increasing teacher candidates’ awareness of children’s rights. Kiral, 2019 conducted a similar study on the attitude of preservice teachers towards children’s rights in Aydin, Turkey. Using a larger sample of 818 preservice teaching students, the researcher used questionnaires to measure attitudes towards children’s rights. The results showed a high attitude among all students. However, significant differences were noted across variables such as gender and university attended by the students. The study recommended making human rights courses compulsory and increasing awareness of children’s rights among male students.

Still, on teachers, Banko-Bal & Guler-Yildiz, 2021 conducted a study on early childhood education teachers’ attitudes, perspectives, and behaviors towards children’s rights in Turkey. Using a sequential transformative design, the researchers used quantitative questionnaires and interviews to collect data from 205 teachers and analyzed it through descriptive statistics, among other tests for the qualitative part. Results indicated that the teachers’ attitudes toward children’s rights were generally positive. However, their behaviors and attitudes were incompatible with those rights. The study recommended that teachers be trained on children’s rights and their importance in education. During the pandemic, Ertas et al., 2022 also surveyed primary school teachers’ perspectives towards children’s rights in Yozgat, Turkey. Through purposive sampling, qualitative data was collected from 19 primary school teachers and then analyzed using descriptive statistics. According to the study, teachers expressed negative views on children’s rights to participation, life, and development as a consequence of the pandemic. The study recommended intervention programs for children that were socially or psychologically affected by the pandemic. The above-listed studies provide a relevant framework through which the intended research on university students’ attitudes towards stateless Bidoon children’s rights could be conducted.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The purpose of the research

The purpose of the present study is to develop an ingenious, valid and reliable scale, which can be used to measure and examine the attitudes of Kuwait university students towards Bedoon childrens rights. This study aim to examine if tthere any relationship between the state of having taken a human rights course and gender and the attitudes towards stateless childrens rights

Research Questions

Ground on prior research, this study will be guided by the following questions

  1. Is the scale valid and reliable scale and can be used to measure and examine the attitudes of Kuwait university students towards Bedoon childrens rights?
  2. Is there any relationship between the state of having taken a human rights course and the attitudes towards stateless childrens rights?
  3. Is there any relationship between gender and the attitudes towards stateless childrens rights?

 

 

Method

Participants

The participants in this study are Kuwait University students from the State of Kuwait from all the colleges and all the years (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grade university). This study conducted in the first course of 2022/2023 academic year between 1-November- 2022/ to 20-December 2022. In the study, the variables of gender, faculty, grade level and the state of having taken a human rights course. The study was conducted with students.

 

Instruments

The data were collecte using the scale named questionnaire of measuring attitudes towards childrens rights was adopted from karman Kepenkci (2006). The researchers asked for the permission of using the data from karman Kepenkci and she agreed, and add the word stateless in the scale to used in stateless childrens rights. A (strongly agree- agree- undecided-disagree and strongly disagree) has been used in scale construction. The scale consists of 22 items, 19 of which are positive and 3 of which are negative.

 

 

Data Analysis

For analysis of the research the researchers used Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). To examine the validity and reliability of the adopted scale, factor analysis and cronbach alph have been used. For each positive and negative statements corrected item total correlation was calculated. The researchers evaluated university students attitudes scores towards stateless childrens rights mean, median, mode, standard deviation, and minimum and maximum scores. To see whether there was a meaningful difference between the university students attitudes according to variables of gender, faculty, grade and the state of having taken a human rights course the t-test was used.

 

Ethical Considerations

Ethics Committee approval was taken from Kuwait University from the College of Education, and application permission was obtained from the Foundation of Education Department, Collge of Education. The student were informed about the purpose of the studyand received a written approvals in a voluntary basis.

 

Results

The factor analysis technique was applied on the adapted scale to test validity of the attitude about the stateless childrens rights.

 

Study method

Study method

This study is based on a descriptive research method, in order to find out the attitude of Kuwait University students towards the rights of Bedoon children according to some independent variables (gender, academic year, study of the education or human rights course, specialization in kindergarten or primary school, college) to collect and analyze And then extract the most important results related to the attitude of Kuwait University students towards the rights of Bedoon children from their point of view

Study community and sample

Study community and sample: The study community consisted of male and female students at Kuwait University, which were selected according to the simple random sampling method, reaching (1135). Which is (0.0) out of the total number of Kuwait University students (0.00000) according to the admission statistics for the first semester of the academic year (2022-2023). Table No. (1) shows the characteristics of the sample members according to the study variables:

Table (1)

Sample description

Variables Level n %
Gender Male 103 9.1
Female 1032 90.9
Academic year First year 251 22.1
Second year 373 32.9
Third year 266 23.4
Forth year 245 21.6
Study of the education or human rights course? Yes 364 32.1
No 771 67.9
College Literary 914 80.5
scientific 221 19.5
Total   1135 100.0

 

Study tools

Karaman Kepenkci’s (2006) scale (measurement of attitudes toward children’s rights) was used. In its original form, the scale has one topic with (22) items related to attitudes toward children’s rights. The items are graded on a five-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. The items were directed to Bedoon child without error or modification by the researchers.

The psychometric properties of the attitude scale toward children’s rights (study tools validity and reliability)

Face validity (Arbitrators): It was validated by presenting the scale to a group of arbitrators (00) university professors specializing in education and psychology at Kuwait University to determine the scale’s validity in terms of linguistic integrity and instruction clarity. Their observations were taken into account, and the amendments that they suggested were added to Appendix (1), where their observations came by deleting (4) items (1), (2), (14), (15) from the scale, making the scale’s total number (18) items. At order to make sure that both male and female students understood the scale phrases and to identify those that needed to be amended, the researchers then applied the scale to (300) students at Kuwait University and in various colleges. And evaluate the scale’s reliability for use and application. The exploratory sample was subjected to a factor analysis, which revealed that all items were saturated with a single factor, which accounted for 35.40% of the total variance of the scale’s responses. Table (2) shows the saturation values of all items, where the saturation values ranged between (0.413) for item (1) and it states (the rights of the Bedoon child must be under the supervision of the state), while the largest value was (0.740) for item (7), which states (Privacy is a right for Bedoon children, and therefore their private lives must be protected.) The rest of the saturation values are limited to these two items. The researchers also made sure of the stability of the scale using Cronbach’s Alpha for the items after deleting the item, and the value of Alpha was (0.856). And it ranged between items after deleting the item between (0.842 – 0.862).

Table 2

Factor analysis results for the items of the scale and Cronbach’s alpha value for the items after deleting the item (n = 300)

Items Saturation Total correlation of a corrected item Cronbach’s alpha value after deleting the item
1. The rights of the Bedoon child should be overseen by the state. .413 .372 .853
2. “Countries must assist Bedoon families in raising their Bedoon children better.” .446 .420 .851
3. I believe that the “right to life” is the fundamental right of Bedoon children. .435 .337 .854
4. If Bedoon children are separated from their mother or father, or both, they have the right to see them.” .483 .418 .851
5. States should help Bedoon families living in different countries live together.” .495 .467 .855
6. I believe that Bedoon children have the right to express themselves through writing or drawing. .740 .669 .842
7. ” Because Bedoon children have a right to privacy, their private lives must be protected.”” .746 .656 .843
8. The state must protect Bedoon children from all forms of abuse.” .643 .547 .848
9. Bedoon children who do not have a home, in my opinion, should be protected and raised by the state.” .637 .569 .845
10. Bedoon children who cannot live with their parents have the right to be adopted or fostered by appropriate families.” .666 .356 .862
11. The state must take the necessary precautions to protect, educate, and employ Bedoon children who are disabled.” .671 .616 .842
12. Countries, in my opinion, should assist Bedoon parents in providing better living conditions for their Bedoon children.” .584 .530 .846
13. I believe that the Bedoon child has the right to participate in various activities and games.” .705 .577 .848
14. Bedoon children, I believe, should be protected from drug use.” .688 .545 .848
15. Bedoon children, I believe, should be protected from all forms of abuse and neglect.” .697 .547 .848
16. Children who identify as Bedoon should, in my opinion, be shielded from any harm that might come from that. .736 .612 .844
17. States must take every precaution in treating neglected and abused Bedoon children. .615 .510 .848
18. I believe it’s important to support Bedoon youngsters who have run afoul of the law in becoming responsible members of society. .575 .317 .858
Eigen value 6.450    
Variance ratio 35.40    
Cronbach’s alpha value for the items

0.856

 

Results

 

Results

The first question: What are the attitudes of Kuwait University students towards the rights of Bedoon children in the State of Kuwait?

For answering this question, descriptive statistics were used from arithmetic means, standard deviations and coefficient of variation for the responses of the study sample, and the results were as follows:

 

Table 3

Arithmetic means, standard deviations, and the coefficient of variation for the responses of the study sample on a measure of the attitudes of Kuwait University students towards the rights of Bedoon children (n = 1135)

 

 

       
Items Mean SD Coefficient of variation
1. The rights of the Bedoon child should be overseen by the state. 4.70 0.73 15.4
2. “Countries must assist Bedoon families in raising their Bedoon children better.” 4.67 0.82 17.5
3. I believe that the “right to life” is the fundamental right of Bedoon children. 4.81 0.62 12.8
4. If Bedoon children are separated from their mother or father, or both, they have the right to see them.” 4.82 0.57 11.7
5. States should help separated Bedoon families living in different countries live together.” 4.29 1.14 26.5
6. I believe that Bedoon children have the right to express themselves through writing or drawing. 4.80 0.59 12.2
7. ” Because Bedoon children have a right to privacy, their private lives must be protected.”” 4.78 0.64 13.5
8. The state must protect Bedoon children from all forms of abuse.” 4.85 0.50 10.2
9. Bedoon children who do not have a home, in my opinion, should be protected and raised by the state.” 4.74 0.68 14.3
10. Bedoon children who cannot live with their parents have the right to be adopted or fostered by appropriate families.” 4.12 1.24 30.1
11. The state must take the necessary precautions to protect, educate, and employ Bedoon children who are disabled.” 4.72 0.67 14.1
12. Countries, in my opinion, should assist Bedoon parents in providing better living conditions for their Bedoon children.” 4.59 0.84 18.4
13. I believe that the Bedoon child has the right to participate in various activities and games.” 4.85 0.47 9.7
14. Bedoon children, I believe, should be protected from drug use.” 4.87 0.51 10.4
15. Bedoon children, I believe, should be protected from all forms of abuse and neglect.” 4.86 0.50 10.2
16. Children who identify as Bedoon should, in my opinion, be shielded from any harm that might come from that.

 

4.81 0.55 11.3
17. States must take every precaution in treating neglected and abused Bedoon children. 4.77 0.61 12.8
18. I believe it’s important to support Bedoon youngsters who have run afoul of the law in becoming responsible members of society. 4.49 0.98 21.8
Total 84.56 6.91 8.2

We conclude from Table No. (3) that the attitudes of Kuwait University students towards the rights of Bedoon children in the State of Kuwait were positive and to a large extent, with a general mean (84.56), a standard deviation (6.91), and the value of the coefficient of difference was (8.2) only. The total score and the majority of the items, which means low of discrepancy and low dispersion between the answers of the study sample, as well as indicates that there is homogeneity, agreement and high support among the members of the study sample about the rights of Bedoon children in the State of Kuwait. And with high arithmetic means for all items, as the sample’s responses tended towards approval and agreement to a large extent. It was found that the highest degrees were for items (14), which states (Bedoon children, I believe, should be protected from drug use.”), with an arithmetic mean (4.87), a standard deviation (0.51 and the value of the coefficient of variation was (10.4). Then Item (15), which states (Bedoon children, I believe, should be protected from all forms of abuse and neglect.”), with an arithmetic mean (4.86), a deviation of (0.50), and a coefficient of variation (10.2). Then items (13) and (8) which state (“I believe that the Bedoon child has the right to participate in various activities and games.”, “The state must protect Bedoon children from all forms of abuse.”). It is attributed to these paragraphs that the sample supports more and more that Bedoon children should be protected from drug abuse and their protection from the negative influence of being Bedoon and their right to play games and participate in activities and protect them from abuse. While the lowest arithmetic mean came for items (5) and (10 which state (States should help separated Bedoon families living in different countries live together.”), (Bedoon children who cannot live with their parents have the right to be adopted or fostered by appropriate families.”) with arithmetic mean (4.29) and (4.12), respectively. With standard deviations between (1.14) and (1.24). This indicates a large discrepancy between the attitudes of the sample in those items, since the coefficients of variation for the majority of the paragraphs were weak, except for the same two items, with a high coefficient of variation between (26.5-30.1). These items attribute the state’s responsibility to provide assistance to separated Bedoon families living in different countries, as well as opportunities for them to live with their parents or be adopted and cared for by suitable families.

 

The second question: Are there statistically significant differences in the mean of the study sample on the scale of the rights of Bedoon children attributed to the variables of the study (gender, study of education and or human rights course, kindergarten or primary stage, type of college?

T-test was used for independent samples, and the results are as follows:

 

Table 4

T-test for independent samples between the mean of Kuwait University students according to the variables (gender, study of the education or human rights course, kindergarten or primary stage, type of college) related to the rights of Bedoon children

Variable Level n Mean SD Degrees of freedom T-value significance level
Gender Male 103 81.84 10.80 1133 4.21 .000
Female 1032 84.83 6.33      
Study of the education or human rights course? Yes 364 84.60 7.23 1133 0.13 .900
No 771 84.54 6.76      
Kindergarten or primary stage? Yes 377 84.18 7.13 1133 1.30 .193
No 758 84.75 6.79      
College Literary 914 84.41 6.97 1133 1.50 .133
scientific 221 85.19 6.63      

 

We conclude from Table No. (4) that there are only statistically significant differences between the gender variable towards females at a significance level of less than 0.05. While there were no significant differences for the variable of studying the course of education or human rights (yes / no), as well as specialization in the kindergarten and primary stages (yes / no). And the college type variable (literary / scientific), significance level of T-value was greater than 0.05.

 

The third question: Is there an effect for each of the variables of (gender and study of the education or human rights course) on the attitude of students at Kuwait University towards the rights of Bedoon children?

Two-way classification analysis was used, and the results were as follows:

Table 5

The results of Two-way classification analysis of the effect of each of gender and the study of education or human rights course and the interaction between them on the variable of the attitude of Kuwait University students towards the rights of Bedoon children

sources of variation Sum of squares Degrees of freedom Mean square F-value significance
(A) Gender 673.96 1 673.96 14.38 .000
(B) study of the education or human rights course 201.02 1 201.02 4.29 .039
Interaction (A) x (B) 242.59 1 242.59 5.18 .023
Remainder 53014.15 1131 46.87    
Total 8169526.00 1135      

We conclude the following from Table No. (5):

– There is an effect of gender on the attitude of Kuwait University students towards the rights of Bedoon children at significance level of 0.01. It was shown by T-test.

– There is an effect of the study of education or human rights course on the attitude of Kuwait University students towards the rights of Bedoon children at significance level 0.05

– There is an effect of the interaction of each of gender and study of education or human rights course on the attitude of Kuwait University students towards the rights of Bedoon children at significance level 0.05

 

Discussion

 

 

References

 

Karaman-Kepenekci, Y. (2006). A study of university students’ attitudes towards children’s rights in Turkey. The International Journal of Children’s Rights, 14(3), 307-318.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References.

Abdulkarim, K. A. (2017). Crystallizing a Discourse of “Khalijiness”: Exclusion and Citizenship in the Arab Gulf States. University of Pennsylvania: College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal College of Arts And. https://doi.org/https://repository.upenn.edu/curej/211.

Banko-Bal, C., & Guler-Yildiz, T. (2021). An investigation of early childhood education teachers’ attitudes, behaviors, and views regarding the child’s rights. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy, 15(1).

Bessler, J. (2022). The death penaltys denial of fundamental human rights: International

law, state practice, and the emerging abolitionist norm. New York: Cambridge University Press

Erkut, Z., Saygin, B., Afsar, N., & Yildiz, S. (2022). Determination of attitudes towards children’s Rights of Nursing Faculty Senior students. Hali niversitesi Salk Bilimleri Dergisi, 5(2), 6171. https://doi.org/10.48124/husagbilder.1109300

Ertas, B. D., Batmaz, O., & Kilic, A. (2022). Children’s rights in the perspective of primary school teachers in the period covid-19 epidemic. Participatory Educational Research, 9(3), 207225.

Jacobs, A. J. (2021). Assigning responsibility for childrens health when parents and

authorities disagree? Whose child? Switzerland: Springer

International Coalition for the Rights of the Stateless. (2015). UPR Report to the Human Rights of the state of Kuwait. Universal Periodical Review-Kuwait.

Kahraman, P. B., & Sezer, G. O. (2017). The Investigation of the Relation Between The attitudes of the Teacher Candidates towards Children’s Rights and Their State of Liking Children. Academic Journal of Management and Education, 13(4), 714.

Karaman-Kepenekci, Y. (2006). A study of university students’ attitudes towards children’s rights in Turkey. The International Journal of Children’s Rights, 14(3), 307318. https://doi.org/10.1163/157181806778458095

Kiral, B. (2019). The investigation of the attitudes of preservice teachers regarding the rights of the child. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 7(2), 148156. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v7i2.3882.

Mansoor, A. (2021). Education rights for stateless Bidoon children in Kuwait: The Voice of Government officials. Journal of Practical Studies in Education, 2(6), 19. https://doi.org/10.46809/jpse.v2i6.34

McAleese, M. (2019). Childrens rights and obligations in Canon Law: The christening

contract. Boston: Brill Nijhoff

Tobin, J. (2019). The UN convention on the rights of the child: A commentary. Oxford:

Oxford University Press

Vandenhole, W., Desmet, E., & Reynaert, D. (2015). Routledge international handbook of

childrens rights studies. New York: Routledge

 

 

References

Jacobs, A. J. (2021). Assigning responsibility for childrens health when parents and

authorities disagree? Whose child? Switzerland: Springer

McAleese, M. (2019). Childrens rights and obligations in Canon Law: The christening

contract. Boston: Brill Nijhoff

Vandenhole, W., Desmet, E., & Reynaert, D. (2015). Routledge international handbook of

childrens rights studies. New York: Routledge

 

References

Bessler, J. (2022). The death penaltys denial of fundamental human rights: International

law, state practice, and the emerging abolitionist norm. New York: Cambridge University Press

Tobin, J. (2019). The UN convention on the rights of the child: A commentary. Oxford:

Oxford University Press

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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HIGH SCHOOL
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(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
$26
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Urgency
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

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Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

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Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

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Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

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Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

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