and deliver school counseling programs that improve student
outcomes. The ASCA National Model: A Framework for
outlines the components of a school counseling program that is integral to the schools
academic mission and is created to have a significant positive impact on student
achievement, attendance and discipline.
The ASCA National Model guides school counselors in the development of school counseling programs that:
are based on data-informed decision making
are delivered to all students systematically
include a developmentally appropriate curriculum focused on the mindsets and
behaviors all students need for postsecondary readiness and success
close achievement and opportunity gaps
result in improved student achievement, attendance and discipline
Training and credentialing matters. School counselors are certified/licensed educators with
a minimum of a masters degree in school counseling, making them uniquely qualified to
address all students academic, career and social/emotional development needs through the
implementation of a school counseling program that promotes and enhances student success.
Ratios matter. Research shows that
ratios have a significant effect on student
attendance and lead to higher test scores.
The ideal caseload is 250:1. 250:1
For research on the effectiveness of school counseling programs, go to
The framework of the ASCA National Model consists of four components: define, manage,
deliver and assess.
Three sets of school counseling standards define the school counseling profession. These
standards help new and experienced school counselors develop, implement and assess their
school counseling program to improve student outcomes.
ASCA Mindsets & Behaviors for Student Success: K12 College- and Career-Readiness for
ASCA Ethical Standards for School Counselors
ASCA School Counselor Professional Standards & Competencies
To be delivered effectively, the school counseling program must be efficiently and effectively
managed. The ASCA National Model provides school counselors with the following program focus and planning tools to guide the design and implementation of a school counseling program that gets results.
School Data Summary
Annual Student Outcome Goals
l Classroom and Group
l Closing the Gap
Annual Administrative Conference
Use of Time
No more than
of a school
should be spent in
and school support
Appropriate and Inappropriate Activities for School Counselors
Appropriate Activities for School
Inappropriate Activities for School
n advisement and appraisal for academic
n building the master schedule
n orientation, coordination and academic
advising for new students
n coordinating paperwork and data entry
of all new students
n interpreting cognitive, aptitude and
n coordinating cognitive, aptitude and
achievement testing programs
n providing counseling to students who
are tardy or absent
n signing excuses for students who are
tardy or absent
n providing counseling to students who
have disciplinary problems
n performing disciplinary actions or
assigning discipline consequences
n providing short-term individual and
small-group counseling services to
n providing long-term counseling in
schools to address psychological
n consulting with teachers to schedule
and present school counseling
curriculum lessons based on
developmental needs and needs
identified through data
n covering classes when teachers are
absent or to create teacher planning
n interpreting student records n maintaining student records
n analyzing grade-point averages in
relationship to achievement
n computing grade-point averages
n consulting with teachers about building
classroom connections, effective
classroom management and the role of
noncognitive factors in student success
n supervising classrooms or common
n protecting student records and
information per state and federal
n keeping clerical records
n consulting with the school principal
to identify and resolve student issues,
needs and problems
n assisting with duties in the principals
n advocating for students at individual
education plan meetings and 504
meetings, student study teams and
school attendance review boards, as
n coordinating schoolwide individual
education plans, student study teams,
response to intervention plans, MTSS
and school attendance review boards
n analyzing disaggregated schoolwide
and school counseling program data
n serving as a data entry clerk
School counselors deliver developmentally appropriate activities and services directly to
students or indirectly for students as a result of the school counselors interaction with
These activities and services help students develop
the ASCA Mindsets & Behaviors for Student
Success and improve their achievement,
attendance and discipline.
Direct Student Services
Appraisal and Advisement
Indirect Student Services
To achieve the best results for students, school counselors regularly assess their program to:
determine its effectiveness
inform improvements to their school counseling program design and delivery
show how students are different as a result of the school counseling program
School counselors also selfassess their own mindsets and behaviors to inform their professional development and annually participate in a school counselor performance appraisal
with a qualified administrator. The ASCA National Model provides the following tools to
guide assessment and appraisal.
School Counseling Program Assessment
Annual Results Reports
School Counselor Assessment and Appraisal
ASCA School Counselor Professional Standards & Competencies Assessment
School Counselor Performance Appraisal Template
For more information about the ASCA National Model, go to
A minimum of
of a school
should be spent in
direct and indirect
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