Self- identification as indigenous peoples at the individual level


Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Page 2 of 18


As an introduction to this class, please take some time to watch this important one hour film, The Doctrine of Discovery: Stolen Lands, Strong Hearts. The film sets out to explain the policies, procedures and laws applied byWestern European nation states and religious institutions to overtakeIndigenous Peoples toclaim sovereigntyover, and title to, Indigenous lands and resources.

As you watch this film, write down any idea, concept or term that stands out for you.

Also consider these three questions:

  1. What is the Doctrine of Discovery?
  2. Why are Indigenous peoples here in Canada and on other continents seeking repudiation of the Doctrine of Discovery?
  3. What institutions, systems, and processes are tied to the Doctrine of Discovery?

Video Description:“This film is one of the responses of the Anglican Churchs Primates Commission on discovery reconciliation and justice. The purpose of this film is to respond to the calls to action by helping to provide education and insight into the racist foundations of many of our property and other laws still in existence to this day.”


Please download the Study Guide for the Film

Some Terms from Doctrine of Discovery

Colonialism: the policy of a country seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of economic dominance. In the process,colonisersmay impose their religion, economics, and other cultural practices on the Indigenous peoples. The foreign invaders rule the territory in pursuit of their interests, seeking to benefit from thecolonisedregion’s people and resources.

The Crown:The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states). Legally ill-defined, the term has different meanings depending on context. It is used to designate the monarch in either a personal capacity, as Head of the Commonwealth, or as the king or queen of his or her realms. It can also refer to the rule of law; however, in common parlance ‘The Crown’ refers to the functions of government and the civil service.

Mercantile system-relating to merchants or trade, commerce

Out of the Ether-like pulling it out of the air

Papal Bull:A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church

Sovereignty:Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a term designating supreme authority. In international law, the important concept of sovereignty refers to the exercise of power by a state.

Terra Nullius– Empty land; land not legally belonging to anyone.

Title:In property law, a title is a bundle of rights in a piece of property in which a party may own either a legal interest or equitable interest. The rights in the bundle may be separated and held by different parties. It may also refer to a formal document, such as a deed, that serves as evidence of ownership. Conveyance of the document may be required in order to transfer ownership in the property to another person.

The Doctrine of Discoveryis a principle of international law dating from the late 15th century. It has its roots in a papal decree issued by Pope Nicholas V in 1452 that specifically sanctioned and promoted the conquest, colonization, and exploitation of non-Christian territories and peoples.

A Brief Introduction to Terminology

When looking at any subject, we need to take some time to learn the terminology. In Indigenous Studies, this is particularly difficult because of the changing political discourse asIndigenous Peoples claim their rightful place in the broader Canadian society. Important to realizing this is understanding complex ideologyaroundsovereignty, self-determination and self government.

You will see in the module that various resources define differentterms in subtly different ways. The terms below are a brief introduction to some naming conventions.

“Aboriginal”:The term aboriginal is preferable to Indian or Native.

“Inuit & Mtis Identity”:Indian, status, and the Indian Acts role in defining identity

“First Nations”First Nations as a term isIncreasingly used specifically for First Nations – reserve communities and the people living in them or closely associated with them. It is a contemporary replacement for Indian; however, Inuit and Metis do not use this term to identify themselves.

“Indigenous”:General terms such as Aboriginal, Indigenous, or Indianarise out of European or international legal frameworks, and group them in with other groups who they may not consider related.


“Mtis”:This term has been used to describe any person of mixed European and Indian ancestry.But this broader usage of the term is not supported by current Canadian case law. Why?
Mtis people trace their lineage to particular historic Mtis communities, namely in Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

Take a few minutes to review this CBC video by Inukjournalist Ossie Michelin on How to Talk About Indigenous People


t is estimated there are 370 million Indigenous peoples worldwide, living in 70 different countries, according to the United Nations (U.N.).

Understanding the term Indigenous

Considering the diversity of indigenous peoples, an official definition of indigenous has not been adopted by any UN-system body. Instead the system has developed a modern understanding of this term based on the following:

  • Self- identification as indigenous peoples at the individual level and accepted by the community as their member.
  • continuity with pre-colonial and/or pre-settler societies.
  • Strong link to territories and surrounding natural resources.
  • Distinct social, economic or political systems.
  • Distinct language, culture and beliefs.
  • of society.
  • Resolve to maintain and reproduce their ancestral environments and systems as distinctive peoples and communities.

A Question of Identity

According to the UN the most fruitful approach is to identify, rather than define indigenous peoples.This is based on the fundamental criterion of self-identification as underlined in a number of human rights documents.

Indigenous isa relational term, and also the result of the political organization of Indigenous groups on the international level who have sought ways to define their common purpose and advance a common cause.

Indigenous populations have become socio-economically disadvantaged and vulnerable to discriminatory state policy and even to outright armed repression.


Indigenous- The Term

As we have seen on the previous page, under international law there is no official definition of the word “Indigenous”. The United Nations characterizes Indigenous groups as autonomous and self-sustaining societies. Historically dominant settler populations have subjected Indigenous peoples to discrimination, marginalization and assimilation of their cultures.

A History of the Term “Indigenous”

In the 1970s,Aboriginal leadersadopted the term“Indigenous” followingthe rise of Indigenous rights movements around the world.The use of the term was a way to identify and unifytheir communities.It was preferred over other terms that reflected histories and power dynamics by the colonizers. The Indigenous experience is diverse; therefore, having a universal definition is difficult.

The United Nations Special Rapporteur on Discrimination against Indigenous Populations, Jos Martnez Cobo, in the 1980s , developed a working definition for use with the Working Group of Indigenous Populations:

“Indigenous communities, peoples and nations are those which, having a historical continuity with pre-invasion and pre-colonial societies that developed on their territories, consider themselves distinct from other sectors of the societies now prevailing in those territories, or parts of them. They form at of society and are determined to preserve, develop and transmit to future generations their ancestral territories, and their ethnic identity, as the basis of their continued existence as peoples, in accordance with their own cultural patterns, social institutions and legal systems.”Source:)

Still the Term “Indigenous” is Problematic

Indigenous populations ties to land and place must be emphasized within any definition.

Paul Coe, a Wiradjuri lawyer from Australia, oppose(s) defining Indigeneity in relation to an oppressor, as it pathologizes the term and defines the existence of Indigenous people by their oppression, thus legitimizing and normalizing it.

Under such a definition, one cannot be Indigenous without being colonized.

Maori scholar Linda Tuhiwai Smith questions the wisdom of using a single term at all:The term Indigenous is problematic in that it appears to collectivize many distinct populations whose experiences under imperialism have been vastly different.



Aboriginal vs Western Views on Rights

There is a fundamental difference between how these two groups see Rights.

Aboriginal legal traditions and treatiesrecognizeindividualandgrouprights; whilehistorically, Western society has emphasizedindividualrights andfreedoms, seeking, basically, to protect the individual from abuses by the state or other powers.

Aboriginal Legal Traditions and Treaties

  • Individuality depends on collective heritage and identity.Jamess Sakej Youngblood Henderson
  • Indigenous rights include bothgrouprights, orcollectiverights, andindividualrights.

predominantly protects individual rights; however,

  • Section 25 guarantees the protection of Aboriginal rights
  • Sections 16 and 23 protect some group language and cultural rights
  • Section 35 of the Constitution further recognizes and affirms Aboriginal rights

In most Indigenous societies both collective and individual rights are recognized.Group rights protect the foundations of a society and are especially critical when a society is threatened.

Such rights include:

  • the right to practice culture and customs,
  • the right to self-determination,
  • the right to subsistence economies,
  • the right to governance,
  • the right to land

The majority of the worlds Indigenous populations seek state recognition of these collective rights in order to protect and strengthen their societies.

What is a worldview?

Every people has a way of knowing, seeing, explaining and living in the world. Each group may have very distinct ideas about what is important. A worldview can be examined by looking at cultural, spiritual and philosophical themes.

To get an overview of the differences between the Indigenous world views and the Western world views, take a few minutes to review the short video below.

While you are watching, take note of the key differences.

Video Description:”How we see the world determines how we act. Western thought sees us at war with each other over resources. Indigenous philosophy, we are all related as individuals in balance with nature. Watch ENOUGHNESS: Resorting Balance to the Economy and learn more at.”



The Rise of International Indigenous Rights Movements

International human rights instruments, which have been designed principally by Western-liberal societies, have overlooked collective rights in favour of individual rights.

The rise of the international Indigenous rights movement (post 1950s), has meant that policymakers must seek to balance individual rights with collective rights through new international instruments.

Groups include:

  • United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Peoples (), established 1982 by Indigenous organizations and U.N. member states to enforce standards regarding Indigenous rights globally.
  • United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (), 2000
  • United Nations Human Rights Council ()
  • United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (), 2007
  • Transnationalby Indigenous peoples


Constitution Act, 1982 Section 35

It is important to understand that Section 35 of the Canadian Constitution Actrecognizes Aboriginal rights, but did not create themAboriginalrights have existed before Section 35.

Section 35 of the Constitution Act states:

  1. (1) The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed.(2) In this Act, aboriginal peoples of Canada includes the Indian, Inuit and Mtis peoples of Canada.

    (3) For greater certainty, in subsection (1) treaty rights includes rights that now exist by way of land claims agreements or may be so acquired.

    (4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the aboriginal and treaty rights referred to in subsection (1) are guaranteed equally to male and female persons.


What Rights?

While Section 35 recognizes existing Aboriginal rights, it does not define them.

Defining exactly what Aboriginal rights include has been much debated and defined over time through Supreme Court cases.Typically, they have been interpreted to include cultural, social, political, and economic rights including the right to land, right to fish, to hunt, and to practice their own culture, as well as to establish treaties.

Section 35 acknowledges that Aboriginal rights are existing. The Supreme Court of Canada has ruled that any rights previously lost by treaty or other legal processes prior to 1982 no longer existed and, therefore are not protected under the Constitution. The sectiondoes not revive extinguished rights. The phrase existing aboriginal rights needs to be flexible to allow evolutionover time.

Because Section 35 is outside of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the federal government cannot override Aboriginal rights.


There appears to be a disparity between the concept of Aboriginal rights being upheld by Section 35, and the daily lives of Aboriginal peoples, where many have been arrested for exercising what they understand as their Aboriginal rights, such as hunting or fishing:

“Although s.35 guides court and government decisions that directly impact Indigenous Peoples, there remain a considerable number of Indigenous people who either are not directly aware of s.35 or believe it is meaningless in their lives.There are far more Indigenous people who personally know brothers, sisters, aunts, dads, and uncles who have been stopped, questioned, charged, and convicted for exercising their Aboriginal Rights, than who know of the existence or content of s.35.Section 35to many Indigenous Peoples has remained a powerful yet invisible force.”Ardith Walkem and Halie Bruce ()


The conceptWalking in Beautywas first presented byTim Thompson (Mohawk,Hotinonshn:ni)at a meeting in 1998 on ways to improve Aboriginal Studies secondary school curriculum in Ontario. Thompson has saidthat it’s time for curricula and our classrooms to prepare for our beautiful walk together.

According to:

“Walking in Beauty may be understood as a universal concept of Indigenous knowledge. Its meaning instructs each of us is to conduct ourselves in right relations with all of creation, including our relations of the natural world. When we are Walking in Beauty, we conduct ourselves respectfully towards Peoples from all the Four Directions on Mother Earth.”

Walking in Beauty means learning how to get along with each other in a kind, sharing, honest and respectful way.This means listening, learning and knowing about each other about one anothers cultures, histories, contemporary concerns and worldviews.

It means coming together in the Indigenous way, within a circle where there is no start, no top, no end, and no bottom where we all have our rights and responsibilities, and where we all value and respect difference. () >


Learn a little about Walking in Beauty from Navajo Traditional Teachings andNavajo Historian Wally Brown as h

Walking in Beauty is about having a good mind, good heart, and making good decisions.

Terminology Guide:Research on Aboriginal Heritage

There will be a test in week 4on the terms in this document.

Terminology Guide:Research on Aboriginal Heritageor

Please download the document, but pay close attention to the terms below

Aboriginal Peoples:A collective name for the original peoples of North America and their descendants. Section35(2) of the Constitution Act, 1982 recognizes three distinct groups of Aboriginal peoples.In this Act, aboriginal peoples of Canada includes the Indian, Inuit and Mtis peoples of Canada.ii These are separate groups, with each having unique and diverse heritage,language, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs.

Aboriginal and Treaty Rights

Rights that some Aboriginal peoples of Canada hold as a result of their ancestors longstanding use and occupancy of the land. Examples include hunting, trapping and fishing rights on ancestral lands. Aboriginal rights vary from group to group depending on thecustoms, practices, traditions, treaties and agreements that have formed part of their distinctive cultures. Section 35(1) of the Constitution Act, 1982 states The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized andaffirmed.

Aboriginal Title

A term that legally recognizes Aboriginal interest in land. It is based on the long-standing use and occupancy of land by Aboriginal peoples as thedescendants of the original inhabitants of Canada.


Members of a First Nation or group for whom lands have been set apart, and for whom money is held by the Crown. It is a body of Indians declared by the Governor-in-Council to be a Band for the purposes of the Indian Act. Many Bands today prefer to be called First Nations and have changed their names accordingly. For example, the Batchewana Band is now called the Batchewana First Nation.

Bill C-31, 1985:

A Bill that changed the Indian registration system adopted and maintained by the federal government so that entitlement was no longer based on sexually discriminatory rules. However, the amendments resulted in a complicated array of categories of Indians and restrictions on statusiv which was further challenged. See Bill C-3, 2010.

Bill C-3, 2010

This bill amends provisions of the Indian Act that the Court of Appeal for British Columbia found to be unconstitutional in the case of McIvor vs. Canada. The bringing into force of Bill C-3 will ensure that eligible grandchildren of women who lost status as a result of will become entitled to registration (Indian status).

Constitution Act, 1982 (formerly the British North America Act, 1867)

Section 91(24) of the British North America Act, 1867 states that legislative authority for Indians and Lands Reserved for the Indians rests with the federal Section 35 of the repatriated Constitution Act, 1982 states the following:

(1) The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed.

(2) In this Act, aboriginal peoples of Canada includes the Indian, Inuit and Mtis peoples of Canada.

(3) For greater certainty, in subsection (1) treaty rights includes rights that now exist by way of land claims agreements or may be so acquired.

(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the aboriginal and treaty rights referred to in subsection (1) are guaranteed equally to male and female persons


A term that refers to Aboriginal persons who are respected and consulted because of their wisdom, knowledge, experience, background and insight. It does not necessarily signify age.

Enfranchised Indian

An Indian who lost the right by legal process to Indian Status and Band membership, and became a British subject. The process of enfranchisement was abolished in the 1985 amendment to the Indian Act.


A term that came into use in the seventeenth century to describe a people inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada, Greenland, Alaska and Siberia. It has been replaced by the term Inuit, which is what the people of these regions prefer to call themselves

First Nation(s)

A term that came into common usage in the 1970s to replace the word Indian, which some people found offensive. Among its uses, the term refers to the Status, non-Status and Treaty Indians of Canada. Some Indian peoples have replaced the word Band in the name of their community with the term First Nation, respecting their distinct language, culture, heritage and systems of knowledge. Although First Nation is widely used, it has no legal definition.

First Peoples

A collective term used to describe the original peoples of Canada and their descendants


A term commonly used to describe the hundreds of distinct nations of Aboriginal Peoples throughout North, Central and South America and the Caribbean. It can be traced back to Christopher Columbus in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries during his expeditions to find Asia.ix Widely used by explorers and missionaries, the term was later adopted by the Government of Canada and incorporated into the Indian Act, 1876. x It is often used in the context of historical government departments, documents, policies and laws. Indians are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in CanadaIndian (First Nation), Inuit and Mtisaccording to Section 35(2) of the Constitution Act, 1982.

Indian Act,

1876: The Canadian legislation, first passed in 1876, which defines an Indian in relation to the federal governments fiduciary responsibility as it applies to Indians living on-reserve.xi The Act sets out certain federal obligations and regulates the management of Indian reserve lands, Indian monies and other resources, as well as approves or disallows First Nation bylaws. It has been amended several times, most recently in 1985 with Bill C-31 and again in 2011 with Bill C-3 pertaining to identity.

Indian Reserve:

A tract of land, the legal title to which is held by the Crown, set apart for the use and benefit of an Indian Band. Indian Status: A persons legal status as an Indian, as defined by the Indian Act.

Indigenous Peoples:

Ethnic groups defined as indigenous according to one of several meanings of the term. Historically it refers to the original inhabitants of a territory. For this purpose, the term refers to people classified as indigenous under international law in such documents as the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.


The singular form of the term Inuit.


An Inuktitut term, meaning people who live in communities across the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (Northwest Territories), Nunavut, Nunavik (Northern Quebec), and Nunatsiavut (Northern Labrador) land claim regions. Inuit call this vast region Inuit Nunangat.xiii. Inuit are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in CanadaIndian (First Nation), Inuit and Mtisaccording to Section 35(2) of the Constitution Act, 1982.

Land Claim(s):

A term originally used by Aboriginal peoples in the late 1960s to describe their right to ownership over, and compensation for, lands they traditionally occupied. In 1973, the Government of Canada recognized two broad classes of First Nation land claimscomprehensive and specificand adopted these in the Land Claims Policy of 1974.xiv Comprehensive claims, which are wide in scope, are based on the assessment that there may be continuing Aboriginal rights to lands and natural resources. Specific claims deal with precise grievances regarding the fulfillment of treaties and relating to the administration of lands and assets under the Indian Act.

Manitoba Act, 1870:

A statute that established Manitoba as a Province in the Dominion of Canada after months of tension between the Canadian and Provisional Government established by Louis Riel and the Mtis. The Act protected specific rights of residents in the Red River Settlement. It granted 1.4 million acres of land to the Mtis as a result of negotiations. The Act was given constitutional status by the Imperial Parliament via the British North America Act, 1871.


A term defined by the Mtis National Council as one who self-identifies as Mtis, who is distinct from First Nation and Inuit, who is of historic Mtis Nation ancestry and accepted by and belonging to a Mtis community. The Mtis are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in CanadaIndian (First Nation), Inuit and Mtisaccording to Section 35(2) of the Constitution Act, 1982.

Mtis Community:

A group of Mtis people who live in, or who have come from, the same geographic area. A community may include more than one settlement, town or village in an area.

Mtis Land Claims:

A complex series of legislation, beginning with the Manitoba Act of 1870, providing for the settlement of claims arising from Aboriginal rights to land in western Canada. Mtis Rights: The Supreme Court of Canada, in the 2003 case of R. vs. Powley, affirms and recognizes that Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 is a substantive promise to the Mtis that recognizes their distinct existence and protects their existing Aboriginal rights.

Mtis Settlement(s):

Broadly applied, a Mtis settlement is a small village settled by the Mtis, such as Batoche, Saskatchewan. More formally, the term refers to the eight Alberta Mtis settlements. These settlements are the only recognized Mtis Nation land base in Canada.


A term that refers to a person of Aboriginal ancestry, indigenous to the land. It can be used synonymously with Indian or Mtis.

Non-Status Indian:

A person who identifies as an Indian or member of a First Nation or Band but is not entitled, for various reasons, to registration under the Indian Act of the federal government.


A term used to describe First Nations living on a reserve for which the Crown has jurisdiction over and a fiduciary responsibility.


A term used to describe First Nations who live away from their original home, territory or reserve. It may also refer to services or objects that are not part of the reserve or territory but relate to First Nations.

Oral History:

A historical account memorized or recorded from the spoken words of people who have knowledge of past peoples, places, events and cultural traditions.

Oral Tradition:

The verbal transmission of a peoples cultural heritage, history, stories and accounts passed on from generation to generation through narratives, songs, chants, music, literature and other forms.

Residential Schools:

A variety of institutions that include industrial schools, boarding schools and student residences, initially developed in New France by Catholic missionaries to provide care and schooling. The federal government and churches developed a system of residential schools in Canada stretching from Nova Scotia to the Arctic from the 1830s onward.xviii These government-funded, church-run schools were set up to eliminate parental involvement in the intellectual, cultural, and spiritual development of Aboriginal children.xix In 1884 the Indian Act was amended to include compulsory residential school attendance for Status Indians under age 16. By the 1940s it was determined by both the government and most missionary bodies that the schools were ineffective, and Native protests helped to secure a change in policy. In 1969 it was decided to close the residential schools, and the last school, located in Saskatchewan, was closed in 1996.


A tract of land, the legal title to which is held by the Crown, set apart for the use and benefit of an Indian Band or First Nation. Some Bands or First Nations have more than one reserve


Land set aside by the U.S. government for the use and occupation of a group of Native Americans. The term does not apply in Canada.


A term originally conceived and used by Aboriginal peoples in the late 1970s to describe their right to govern their own affairs. The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development adopted the term and applied it to the of 1984. Such a government is designed, established and administered by Aboriginal peoples under the Canadian Constitution through a process of negotiation with Canada and, where applicable, the provincial government.


A phonetic rendering of an Algonkian word meaning the totality of being female. Other variants are squa, esqua, skwa and skwe. Historically the word squaw has been misused by non-Algonkian speakers. However, traditional use is seen in other related words like nidobaskwa (a female friend), manigebeskwa (a woman of the words), or Squaw Sachem (a female chief).Also related is Iskwekwak–Kah’ Ki Yaw Ni Wahkomakanak (neither Indian princesses nor squaw drudges).

Status Indian

(Registered Indian): A person entitled to have his or her name included on the Indian Register, an official list maintained by the federal government. Certain criteria determine who can be registered as a Status Indian. Only Status Indians are recognized as Indians under the Indian Act, which defines an Indian as a person who, pursuant to this Act, is registered as an Indian or is entitled to be registered as an Indian. Status Indians are entitled to certain rights and benefits under the law.


A formal, ratified agreement or contract usually made between two nations, such as those between Aboriginal peoples and governments.

Treaty Rights:

The specific rights of the Aboriginal peoples embodied in the treaties they entered into with the Crown, initially Great Britain and after Confederation, Canada. They often address matters such as the creation of reserves and the rights of Aboriginal communities to hunt, fish and trap on Crown lands. Treaty rights are protected by section 35 (1) of the Constitution Act, 1982. See Aboriginal and Treaty Rights.


A group of Native Americans sharing a common language and culture. The term is frequently used in the Unted States but only rarely in Canada. An example of this is the Blood Tribe in Albert


A term that can be traced back in literature to the logs of explorers and missionaries (later incorporated into the texts of anthropologists and Canadian government bureaucratic and legislative texts). It carries connotations of violent unstructured peoples with little or no social organization, who are far less refined than Europeans and, in the missionary context, people who are not un-Christian.





Call us 24/7:
Calculate your essay price
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

23 k happy customers
9.7 out of 10 satisfaction rate
833 writers active

Real Reviews from our Customers

Academic Writing Service of a Professional Level

Any academic writer who wishes to join our team of professional writers must possess all the following qualities:


To write an exemplary academic paper, you must have good critical thinking skills, possess the proper knowledge of the discipline, and be knowledgeable about applying an academic writing style.

As such we have a rigorous recruitment process. We only collaborate with professional academic writers. We believe in offering the highest quality academic writing services. Our writers pass various grammar and academic writing tests. They have to provide documents about their personal information and credentials to prove their level of expertise.

As a result, our clients receive papers that are thoroughly-researched, properly cited, and written within academic standards. We are proud that any academic writer from our writer's team can complete the paper at a high standard.

We work with the student’s budget because we know that students are usually on a budget majority of the time. We do not compromise on quality because of low prices. On the contrary, we love to foster a good relationship with our clients. That is why we charge our clients reasonable prices, and we are willing to negotiate and work with their budget.

It may be quite disturbing to decide whether to hire an academic writing company. We care about our client’s privacy and confidentiality. We never disclose your information to third parties. We never publish your paper online. You can use our academic writing service without any fear or anxiety.

Many students struggle with writing academic papers. Some barely have time to do their assignments because of their job and family responsibilities. Others have difficulty applying critical thinking skills or meeting time or assignment requirements. Whatever the reason is, you can always have time to do the things you love and other important things. All you need is a reliable and quality academic writing service. Unfortunately, even if you strongly desire to write the paper yourself, you sometimes face unexpected challenges. As we all know, life is unpredictable! Your teacher may be unconcerned about helping students and may not answer your questions. The good news is that there is a way out! You can hire an online academic writer to help you with your assignments. All you need to do is stipulate your paper requirements in the order form, and you can spend your time as you like.

Our Mission

Our company commits towards delivering high-quality custom papers to our clients. We seek to offer reliable essay writing services to our customers in various subject areas. Our customers are very valuable to us. As such, we commit to ensuring that they derive the utmost satisfaction from the essays we deliver. We have a mission to promote our clients' educational and professional lives by providing high-quality essays for their use. We also have a mission to offer a convenient essay writing system where our customers can easily order and pay for the services. We value quality and professionalism in our company.

Get professional help from our brilliant, skilled, and experienced essay writers

We write papers on any subject area, and we also write various types of papers for various purposes. We have a team of able writers who are eager to help our customers with writing services of exceptional quality. We offer custom writing services for customers across the globe and charge affordable prices for our services. We are the best essay writing company offering personalized services to all our customers. We ensure our customers receive maximum satisfaction from the essays we deliver. Our website is the place to be if you are seeking high-quality essays.

By using our academic writing service, we match your paper subject with a writer with a degree in the subject. The writer is able to apply their skills, knowledge, and expertise to the paper. You receive an original, unique, well-research paper, properly cited and formatted. As such, you are assured of a high-quality paper.

Academic Writing Help From Professionals

Truth be told, writing assignments can be stressful and difficult for any student. There is no shame in getting academic writing help. When you search the term “get academic writing help” there are numerous sites that pop up on the results and our website is among them. So, why is it a great idea to choose us?

During your course, your instructor will assign various types of homework. Our academic writers can prepare essays, presentations, speeches, case studies, research papers, dissertations, thesis papers, and more. Our writer’s department is capable of tackling any assignment of any complexity easily. All you need is to give us detailed instructions to help our experts understand the task.After doing so, you can rest assured that everything is in control, and we will deliver a paper of unmatchable quality.

Expert Assignment Help for College/University Students

Are you a college or university student pursuing your Bachelor’s , Masters, PhD, or Doctorate degree? Sometimes juggling schoolwork with work, family and hobbies can seem like a daunting task. You have to sacrifice one or the other. The sole purpose of our website is to alleviate your academic burdens. We ensure that you do not fail in your classes and you get good grades consistently. We understand that there is a need for academic help.

We acknowledge that our clients are not dumb or lazy but only need academic life need help in order to live a balanced life and make ends meet. We make it our core priority to ensure that all assignments are done and submitted before the stipulated deadlines. All our writers are graduates. They are competent in handling the clients’ assignments. We step in to help you with any and all of your assignments. Our assignment help service ensures that you never miss a grade or deadline.

Proceed to order page

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

Affordable prices


$10 page


$13 page


$14 page

Our prices depend on the urgency of your assignment, your academic level, the course subject, and the length of the assignment. Basically, more complex assignments will cost more than simpler ones. The level of expertise is also a major determinant of the price of your assignment.

Calculate price

Cheap essay writing service

If you need professional help with completing any kind of homework, is the right place to get it. Whether you are looking for essay, coursework, research, or term paper help, or with any other assignments, it is no problem for us. At our cheap essay writing service, you can be sure to get credible academic aid for a reasonable price, as the name of our website suggests. For years, we have been providing online custom writing assistance to students from countries all over the world, including the US, the UK, Australia, Canada, Italy, New Zealand, China, and Japan.

Our cheap essay writing service has already gained a positive reputation in this business field. Understandably so, since all custom papers produced by our academic writers are individually crafted from scratch and written according to all your instructions and requirements. We offer APA, MLA, or a Chicago style paper in almost 70 disciplines. Here, you can get quality custom essays, as well as a dissertation, a research paper, or term papers for sale. Any paper will be written on time for a cheap price.

Using our cheap essay writing help is beneficial not only because of its easy access and low cost, but because of how helpful it can be to your studies. Buy custom written papers online from our academic company and we won't disappoint you with our high quality of university, college, and high school papers. Although our writing service is one of the cheapest you can find, we have been in the business long enough to learn how to maintain a balance between quality, wages, and profit. Whenever you need help with your assignment, we will be happy to assist you.

Proceed to order page

Cheap paper writing service provides high-quality essays for affordable prices

It might seem impossible to you that all custom-written essays, research papers, speeches, book reviews, and other custom task completed by our writers are both of high quality and cheap. It is surprising, but we do have some tricks to lower prices without hindering quality.

To start using our services, it’s enough to place a request like “I need a writer to do my assignment” or “Please, write an essay for me.” We have a convenient order form, which you can complete within minutes and pay for the order via a secure payment system. The support team will view it after the order form and payment is complete and then they will find an academic writer who matches your order description perfectly. Once you submit your instructions, while your order is in progress and even after its completion, our support team will monitor it to provide you with timely assistance.

Affordable essay writing service: get custom papers created by academic experts

Hiring good writers is one of the key points in providing high-quality services. That’s why we have entry tests for all applicants who want to work for us. We try to make sure all writers working for us are professionals, so when you purchase custom-written papers, they are of high quality and non-plagiarized.

Our cheap essay writing service employs only writers who have outstanding writing skills. The quality of all custom papers written by our team is important to us; that is why we are so attentive to the application process and employ only those writers who can produce great essays and other kinds of written assignments. All our writers are graduates. They are competent in handling the clients’ assignments. We step in to help you with any and all of your assignments. Our assignment help service ensures that you never miss a grade or deadline.

Plagiarism-free affordable papers

All our cheap essays are customized to meet your requirements and written from scratch. Our writers have a lot of experience with academic papers and know how to write them without plagiarism. Moreover, at our academic service, we have our own plagiarism-detection software which is designed to find similarities between completed papers and online sources. You can be sure that our custom-written papers are original and properly cited.

Our essay writing service has a 0% plagiarism tolerance. We are well aware of the dangers of plagiarism. Plagiarism is academic suicide. Our essay writing service ensures that all papers are original. We do not sell pre-written papers. All papers are written from scratch as per the instructions. We pass our papers through powerful anti-plagiarism software such as SafeAssign and TurnItIn.

Money-back guarantee

Our cheap essay writing service tries to always be at its best performance level, so each customer who pays money for paper writing can be sure that he or she will get what is wanted. On the off chance that you don’t like your order, you can request a refund and we will return the money according to our money-back guarantee.

There can be a number of reasons why you might not like your order. If we honestly don’t meet your expectations, we will issue a refund. You can also request a free revision, if there are only slight inconsistencies in your order. Your writer will make the necessary amendments free of charge. You can find out more information by visiting our revision policy and money-back guarantee pages, or by contacting our support team via online chat or phone.

On-time Delivery

We know how important any deadline is to you; that’s why everyone in our company has their tasks and perform them promptly to provide you with the required assistance on time. We even have an urgent delivery option for short essays, term papers, or research papers needed within 8 to 24 hours.

We appreciate that you have chosen our cheap essay service, and will provide you with high-quality and low-cost custom essays, research papers, term papers, speeches, book reports, and other academic assignments for sale. We beat all deadlines. We can also handle urgent orders with deadlines as short as 1 hour. Our urgent paper writing service does not compromise on quality due to the short deadline. On the contrary, our essay writers have a lot of experience which comes in handy in such situations.

24/7 support

We provide affordable writing services for students around the world. That’s why we work without a break to help you at any time, wherever you are located. Contact us for cheap writing assistance. Our impeccable customer support team will answer all your questions and help you out with any issues.

Proceed to order page
Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code HACK