Article #4: Revising the Histories and
Futures of Policing
Victor G. Strecher
I. Recent Origins of History of American Policing
A. History as Means and End
B. Social Context and Interplay of Changing Institutions, Roles, and Values
II. The Political Era
A. Deviantly Political or Part of Process
B. Social Innovation Overlaid on Existing Culture
III. The Reform Era
A. Pendleton Act
B. Ideational versus Actual Activity
C. Where and What Is Community
IV. Mertonâ€™s Unanticipated Consequences
A. Impervious Immediacy of Interest
B. Dispassionate Examination of Historical and Experimental Information
Strecher examines the extent to which uses and interpretations of available historical
information differ in purposeâ€”and whether dissimilarities in purpose alter our perception of
history. Kelling and Mooreâ€™s monograph is appraised in relation to the accuracy of its use of
historical materials in support of policy analysis and development. Strecher argues that if history
is misread, there is the potential for gross misinterpretation of the present and related
inapplicable policy direction for the future.
1. Uses and interpretations of historical information differ in depth, breadth, scope,
methodology, and quality of insight. Interpretations are often made to advocate policy.
2. The three-era framework presented by Kelling and Moore is historiologically unsound, as
well as misleading.
3. The Kelling and Moore analysis presents the history of policing and social history as a
4. Strecher asserts that nothing in the first two paradigms presented by Kelling and Moore
suggests that the third, community policing, should follow.
1. What observations does Strecher make about Kelling and Mooreâ€™s three-part paradigm?
What important factors do Kelling and Moore fail to take into consideration when
developing their history of policing?
2. What problems do you feel result from the failure to consider these factors?
3. What specific objections does Strecher have about the reform era?
4. What important issues does Strecher raise about the community era?
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