Results of Global South Countries

Dear Writer,

I will attach file as a example paper named Rethinking climate migration in subSaharan Africa from the perspective of tripartite drivers of climate change.

The required:

-In summary, I want you to re (write) same this example paper from subSaharan Africato with your own words, NEW references, BASED ON data relate to Global South Countries. In the End, I want it new paper with no similarity.Bearing in mind that the interpretation of results and writing may differ based on the results of Global South Countries.

Important point the current paper built on the 3 tripartite drivers of climate change which are: 1-floods, 2- droughts, and 3-sea-level rise BUT IN THE NEW paper that you will write it you must build on these drivers of climate change which are:

1- Increasing temperatures and droughts

2- Water resource scarcity

3-Urban floods and sea-level rise

-Each heading and subheading have specific word count and instructions, so please read before you start writing any heading.

-Finally, USE this file when you start writing (see the heading and subheading below).


Rethinking climate migration in Global South Countries from the perspective of tripartite drivers of climate change

Abstract: 150 words

There is limited attention on climate change (CC) and human migration among scholars and policymakers. Meanwhile, natural disasters are projected to induce migration in the coming years which will affect millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this review, we contribute to climate migration literature by highlighting three important factors (i.e. Increasing temperatures and droughts, Water resource scarcity, Urban floods and sea-level rise) that predispose migrants in SSA to migrate. The review suggests that the environmental impact of CC in SSA cannot be overlooked. For example, the review discovered that the impact of flooding has intensified, and its impact on agriculture will affect ruralurban migration, forcing farmers to look for alternative job opportunities. Moreover, due to the lack of rainfall to support agricultural activities, the option of migrating away from agriculture and settling in urban areas becomes a possible coping strategy. will adversely affect many, due to a lack of adaptive capacity and emergency preparedness. This should concern policymakers because the major trend in migration, whether climate-related or not, is a movement from rural to urban areas which poses significant challenges to urban sustainability and climate resilience. Given the impact of Increasing temperatures and droughts, Water resource scarcity, Urban floods and sea-level risein Global South Countries, we propose the promotion of adaptive capacity through the encouragement of climate insurance programme which is limited in SSA, alternative livelihood opportunity programmes, and providing financial resources for climate adaptation initiatives.

  1. Introduction (800) words
  2. Theoretical and conceptual framework for the analysis (450 words)

This study used the term climate migrant to refer to persons who are compelled by climate events (e.g. Increasing temperatures and droughts, Water resource scarcity, Urban floods and sea-level rise) to leave their home and move either within their countries (internal migration) or abroad (transnational or cross-border migration) (IOM 2007). This means that disasters often generate migration of people away from the affected areas. The most elementary way of explaining international migration is by identifying push and pull factors. Ravenstein (1889) explains push factors of migration to include economic, political, social, violent, or environmental circumstances at the place of origin which put pressure on people to migrate, alternatively, Lee (1966) argues that pull factors are incentives at a possible place of reception. Castles et al. (2005) indicates that the reason for migration is the fact that the costs for staying at the place of origin have to be lower than the basic information costs. Stark and Levhari (1982) argues that the migration decision normally is not only made by the individual but by the household that he or she belongs to. In these contexts, it is important to note that the influence of migration is multi-dimensional and context-specific.

In view of Kluger et al. (2020), migration is an important risk coping strategy. They further argue that moving between and within different geographic regions represents an adaptation strategy of natural resource users worldwide to cope with sudden and gradual changes in resource abundances. There is also empirical evidence available showing that migration is a possible coping strategy for households in order to reduce their vulnerability to environmental shocks (e.g. Edward et al. 2012; Ruano and Milan 2014; Warner et al. 2012a, b). In fact, members of the household could either stay at their place of origin or migrate.

The interactions among environmental change, drivers, and the personal characteristics of individuals can influence migrants, either to decide to move or stay in climate risk areas (Black et al. 2011a, b). As the literature has revealed that people migrate based on some key drivers such as environmental, social, economic, demographic, and political, however, CC increases the risks of these factors (Black et al. 2011a, b). Although the economic driver remains the most determining factor for migration (Ginnetti et al. 2013), environmental change can, however, have an impact directly on human beings and the environment. This will depend on economic, social, demographic, and political drivers. In this study, the environmental change, including increasing temperatures and droughts, Water resource scarcity, Urban floods and sea-level risethat influence migration will be our focus. Drawing from the migration concepts and related literature, a conceptual framework has been developed to guide the study as indicated in Fig. 1. The interconnectedness of the concepts has a strong influence on climate migration as well as the decision to migrate or not. Figure 1 shows the relationship of environmental factors/climate change-related drivers on migration mediated by intervening factors.

Fig. 1 A conceptual framework showing the influence of environmental factor on climate migration mediated by intervening factors


2.1 Environmental factors (150 words)

Several environmental drivers cause human migration which may be interrelated (Filho et al. 2018; Hussain et al. 2020; Ali et al. 2020). Through CC, environmental disasters, including flood, droughts, and sea-level rise are likely to promote environmental changes. These factors may result in loss of homes or livelihoods. These changes can be reduced through climate adaptation. Apart from the environmental drivers, the literature review has revealed that several other factors trigger migration, including social, economic, political, and demographic (Black et al. 2011a, b).


2.2 Intervening factors (150 words)

Migration will occur or not depends on the outcome of the mediating of community, household and individual factors, socio-economic conditions of households, including gender, age, income, education, and marital status (Afifi et al. 2014; Mastrorillo et al., 2016; Abu et al. 2014; Foresight 2011). Morrissey (2012) indicates that the existing evidence across the SSA suggests that migration can be one of a portfolio of societal responses to environmental change and variability and one which is mediated by socio-economic factors of would-be migrants. However, the decision to migrate and stay could be strongly influenced by the existing policies, cost of moving and social network, the type of climate shock, and the capacity of institutions (local, national, and international) to prevent the adverse effects of climatic shocks. For example, the support from institutions, extended family unions, or religious organisations, in sheltering displaced persons, can make migration less likely (Warner et al 2012). More so, during poor agricultural productivity, individuals who have limited financial capacity are less likely to migrate to respond to this change. Ginnetti et al. (2013) report that environmental stress resulting from climate change could diminish livelihood and increase mobility to the point of rupture.


  1. Method (550) words

This paper highlights three important factors including increasing temperatures and droughts, Water resource scarcity, Urban floods and sea-level risethat predispose migrants in Global South Countriesto migrate. The key question this study tends to address is what are the impacts of flood, drought, and sea level on migration in Global South Countries? To do this, we relied on secondary data (journal articles) whose collection was based on a broad theme from the research questions of the study: the influence of intervening factors (obstacles or facilitators) on migration.

The study adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach (Moher et al. 2009) to guide the methodological process and to screen the literature obtained from the databases. PRISMA approach has been widely used by many scholars and organisations for quality systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The PRISMA approach emerged as a response to the , and conceptual and practical issues that were associated with systematic reviews and meta-analysis (Johansen and Thomsen 2016). Furthermore, Gascon et al. (2016) also argue that PRISMA approach is an appropriate method for synthesising all empirical evidence to answer research questions. Other scholars (e.g. Brooks and McNeely 2013; Johansen and Thomsen 2016) emphasised that PRISMA moderates and ensures that the selection process of papers, articles, and publications is substantially transparent and accurate as well as addresses the consistent flow of information through different phases of the review. It also specifies the total number of articles discovered, screened, eligible, and adopted for a study. In spite of the strengths of the PRISMA approach, it fails to capture the results of continual searches used in systematic reviews and as a result undermines the quality of reviews conducted (Tao et al. 2011; Kahale et al. 2021). Moreover, it does not directly detail an in-depth manner of conducting systematic reviews. To address these limitations, the current study continued to update the list of literature used for the study with newly published ones and those that were inadvertently missed during the search with the snowball technique. Snowballing is an approach of reviewing the reference list of the manuscripts that were reviewed and identifying relevant references for the work. The screening process (see below sections) also helped to mitigate the weaknesses.

The initial scoping of the literature involved searches on electronic data basis by the primary author and an assistant. Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer, JSTOR, and Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) were searched for articles and other publications relevant to CC and migration by keeping a focus on the tripartite factors (increasing temperatures and droughts, Water resource scarcity, Urban floods and sea-level rise) that are mainly associated with migration. Search for phrases and keywords were used together, including climate change and migration, floods and migration, drought and migration, sea-level rise and migration were done in English employing the Boolean search strings (AND/OR). Furthermore, Google, Google Scholar, and Mendeley were used to search for relevant literature. The bibliography at the end of each retrieved article was also sought to identify articles that discuss the tripartite factors (increasing temperatures and droughts, water resource scarcity, urban floods and sea-level rise) in SSA. In this review, a snowball approach of the references was applied to the more relevant articles to identify peer-reviewed journal articles that may have been missed.


3.1 Quality criteria (150 words)

3.2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria (150 words)

3.3 Data extraction, management, and synthesis (150 words)

Fig. 2 The PRISMA flow diagram

  1. Result (1500 words in total)

4.1 Increasing temperatures and droughts (500 words)

4. (500words)

4.3 Urban floods and sea-level rise (500 words)

  1. Discussion (1000 words in total)

5.1 Climate migration from the perspective of increasing temperatures and droughts, water scarcity, and floods and sealevel rise (500 words)

5.2 Planning for climate migration for policy development (500 words)


  1. Conclusion (400 words)


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