Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling

8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 1/10
Document Type:
Subject Terms:
Author Affiliations:
Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal
Warikoo, Arun (AUTHOR) [email protected]
Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective. 2014, Vol. 23 Issue 4-6, p172-178.
*CRIMINAL profiling
*CRIMINAL justice system
*CRIMINAL investigation
cyber attacks
cyber criminal profiling
profiling framework
922190 Other Justice, Public Order, and Safety Activities
Criminal profiling is an important tool employed by law enforcement agencies in their
investigations. Criminal profiling is much more than an educated guess; it requires a
scientific-based methodology. Cyber crimes are occurring at an alarming rate globally.
Law enforcement agencies follow similar techniques to traditional crimes. As is the case
in traditional criminal investigation, cyber criminal profiling is a key component in cyber
crime investigations as well. This paper examines cyber criminal profiling techniques
prevalent today, including inductive and deductive profiling, and the need for employing a
hybrid technique that incorporates both inductive and deductive profiling. This paper
proposes a cyber criminal profiling methodology based on the hybrid technique. Criminal
behavior and characteristics are identified by analyzing the data against a predefined set
Copyright of Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective is the property of Taylor &
Francis Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a
listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may
print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No
warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original
published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Jersey City, New Jersey, USA
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 2/10
Accession Number:
Publisher Logo:
Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal
Criminal profiling is an important tool employed by law enforcement agencies in their investigations.
Criminal profiling is much more than an educated guess; it requires a scientific-based methodology.
Cyber crimes are occurring at an alarming rate globally. Law enforcement agencies follow similar
techniques to traditional crimes. As is the case in traditional criminal investigation, cyber criminal
profiling is a key component in cyber crime investigations as well. This paper examines cyber criminal
profiling techniques prevalent today, including inductive and deductive profiling, and the need for
employing a hybrid technique that incorporates both inductive and deductive profiling. This paper
proposes a cyber criminal profiling methodology based on the hybrid technique. Criminal behavior and
characteristics are identified by analyzing the data against a predefined set of metrics.
Keywords: cyber attacks; cyber criminal profiling; forensics; profiling framework
The growing reliance on the cyber space among government institutions and businesses alike has led to
a tremendous surge in cybercrimes. The Internet Crime Reports published yearly by the Internet Crime
Complaint Center (IC3) is testimony to the menace of cybercrime. IC3 received 289,874 consumer
complaints with an adjusted dollar loss of $525,441,1101, an 8.3% increase in reported losses since
2011 (Annual Report, [ 1]).
Before we dig deeper into cyber crime profiling, it is important to understand what cyber crime is. There
is no official meaning of cyber crime written in any dictionary. Cyber crime is a subgroup of computer
crime (Shinder & Tittel, [13]). Computer crime, as per the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), is defined
as “any violation of criminal law that involves the knowledge of computer technology for its perpetration,
investigation or prosecution” (Shinder et al., [13]). There are varying definitions on cyber crime as
described by legislators and organizations. The United Nations (UN) defines cyber crime as “any illegal
behavior committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes
as illegal possession of and offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or
network” (Shinder et al.,
 Listen 
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 3/10
[13]). Symantec (n.d.) defines cyber crime as “any crime that is committed using a computer or network,
or hardware device. The computer or device may be the agent of the crime, the facilitator of the crime,
or the target of the crime.”
There is a motive behind every crime, and cyber crimes are no different. Cyber crimes are performed for
the various motives such as financial gain, intellectual property (IP) theft, espionage, terrorism, and for
thrill. A UN study (Malby et al., [10]) on cyber crime states that “upwards of 80% of cybercrime acts are
estimated to originate in some form of organized activity, with cybercrime black markets established on
a cycle of malware creation, computer infection, botnet management, harvesting of personal and
financial data, data sale, and ‘cashing out’ of financial information.”
Criminal profiling is a key tool available to investigators used to narrow the range of suspects and
evaluate the likelihood of a suspect committing a crime. Criminal profiling is a scientific technique to
assess and analyze the scene of a crime and deduce behavioral characteristics of the individual
committing the crime (Kirwan & Power, [ 8]). A profile consists of a set of characteristics likely to be
shared by criminals who commit a particular type of crime (Shinder et al., [13]). Profiling methods are
based on two assumptions (Kirwan et al., [ 8]) that are as follows:
consistency assumption, based on the premise that an offender will exhibit similar behavior
throughout all their crimes; and
homology assumption, based on the premise that similar offense styles have to be associated with
similar offender background characteristics.
Two types of criminal profiling methods are prevalent today. These are inductive profiling and deductive
Inductive profiling method (Figure 1) employs a database that contains extensive data on criminals
committing a type of crime. The profiler analyzes the data, establishes correlations, and deduces the
characteristics common to statistically large number of offenders committing a specific type of crime
(Shinder et al., [13]).
Graph: FIGURE 1 Inductive profiling methodology.
Deductive profiling (Figure 2) involves analysis of forensic evidence and victim profiling to determine the
motive and attacker characteristics (Tennakoon, [15]). The profiler analyzes the forensic evidence,
employs the principles of victimology, and utilizes his/or her experience to deduce criminal
characteristics (Shinder et al., [13]).
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 4/10
Graph: FIGURE 2 Deductive profiling methodology.
Criminal profiling plays a key role in investigations. This paper uses the definition provided in
“Examination of Cyber-criminal Behavior” (Jahankhani & Al-Nemrat, [ 7]), which is as follows: “An
educated attempt to provide specific information as to the type of individual who committed a certain
crime. A profile based on characteristics patterns or factors of uniqueness that distinguishes certain
individuals from the general population.”
As is the case with a crime, cyber criminal profiling must be used as a tool for cyber crime
investigations. Cyber criminal profiling is effective as a law enforcement tool only when a standard
methodology is used in developing profiles and is not based on an educated guess.
Cyber criminal profiling is garnering tremendous attention due to the rise in cyber crimes. Although it is
similar to traditional criminal profiling, it presents numerous challenges to investigators. The perpetrators
of the crime are remote and may be residing on different continents (Jahankhani et al., [ 7]). An
interdisciplinary approach is required that applies not only psychology, criminology, and law but also a
technological understanding on the subject of cyber crime (Tennakoon, [15]).
Profiling is still based on educated guesses wherein investigators try to identify patterns by comparing
with recorded cyber crimes that may lead to results that are inaccurate. Without a proper use of a
scientific methodology and empirical analysis, profilers may come to different conclusions and
recommendations (Broucek & Turner, [ 4]). Therefore, a standard methodology is required for cyber
criminal profiling to be a credible and effective tool for law enforcement agencies.
Forensic psychology offender profiling techniques are being used in cyber crime investigations as well.
Inductive profiling involves a statistical analysis and is a method frequently used by the Federal Bureau
of Investigation (Jahankhani et al., [ 7]). The inductive profiling method utilizes data mining techniques to
develop models for pattern detection and involves the examination of data to identify patterns that match
known fraud profiles (Wheelbarger, [18]).
Much academic work has been done on building a database of cyber criminal profiles. One of the
projects known as the Hackers Profiling Project revolved around building a huge database on existing
hacker profiles that included demographics, socioeconomic background, social relationships, and
psychological traits (Kirwan et al., [ 8]). However, profiling was based on data obtained from selfreporting questionnaires rather than hacker activities and offenses (Kirwan et al., [ 8]). Donato ([ 5]) in
his paper on criminal profiling proposes a methodology on how to use criminal profiling to improve digital
forensics and cybercrime investigations. Donato’s methodology focuses on finding the capability of the
attacker in terms of skill level and deducing psychological characteristics on basis of the evidence
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 5/10
(Kirwan et al., [ 8]). Donato’s methodology does not look at empirical analysis to establish patterns, nor
does it look at demographic characteristics of previous offenders (Kirwan et al., [ 8]).
In the cyber world, technology keeps on changing and hackers develop and employ new techniques
known as zero day attacks. Their behavior is dynamic and may change over time with the acquisition of
new skills (Jahankhani et al., [ 7]). The other issue is that the data are based on generalizations, and the
sampling leaves out a dataset of skillful people who avoid detection over a period of time, thereby
introducing inaccuracies in the results (Benny, [ 3]). Therefore, relying on inductive profiling only is not
suitable for cyber criminal profiling. On the other hand, relying just on deductive profiling will leave
investigators oblivious to the current trends such as popular attack methods, likely targets and victims
(Tennakoon, [15]). Therefore, a hybrid methodology must be employed for cyber criminal profiling.
The proposed methodology is based on a hybrid profiling model wherein the initial processes are
deductive in nature and statistical analysis is performed to identify common patterns and characteristics.
Digital forensics data can provide vital clues about the attacker such as sophistication of attack,
motivation, tools used, and vulnerabilities exposed (Kwan, Ray, & Stephens, [ 9]). Cyber criminals, like
traditional offenders, have their modus operandi that they tend to repeat at each crime (Shinder et al.,
The proposed methodology employs six Profile Identification Metrics to determine the offender’s modus
operandi, psychology, and behavior characteristics:
Attack Signature. This refers to the tools that were used for the attack. Analysis of the digital
forensic evidence will provide information on the nature of attack signature. For example, if forensic
evidence points to a zero day attack, it implies that a customized code was created for the attack. On
the other hand, attacks that expose known vulnerabilities employ ready to use tools or known codes.
Attack Method. This refers to the method used for the attack. Social engineering, malware,
distributed denial of service (DDoS), spamming, and phishing are some of the common attack
methods employed by the cybercriminals.
Motivation Level. Motivation level is a key metric in identifying cyber criminal behavior. Motivation
Level can be determined by the complexity of the attack, and the complexity of an attack can be
determined by employing the vulnerability tree methodology (Vidalis & Jones, [17]). An attack with
high level of complexity were an attacker has to exploit multiple layers of vulnerabilities implicitly
implies an attacker with a high motivation level. Such attackers are risk takers and persistent in their
attack. An attacker with medium level motivation conducts attacks that are not continuous. An attack
with high level of complexity indicates an attacker with low level motivation is risk averse and
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 6/10
Capability Factor. Capability factor is another important metric useful in identifying characteristics
and is defined in terms of the availability of hacking tools, the ability to use those tools and
techniques, and the level of resources at the attacker’s disposal. Script kiddies are attackers with
basic skill level and use freely available tools. An attacker with intermediate skills uses freely
available tools or purchases malware to conduct attacks and has a handle on the tools used. An
advanced level attacker is an expert in developing customized codes for zero day exploits.
Attack Severity. Attack severity is defined in terms of the impact the threat has on the enterprise.
The severity of an attack is classified into the following:
Low: no tangible to the enterprise;
Medium: there is moderate disruption to the enterprise;
Major: major breach that can have a major business impact; and
Critical: the enterprise goes out of business the moment the threat is realized.
Demographics. Geographic location is a critical metric in profile identification. Existing profiling
methods do not look at geographic locations for profile building, which is a key indicator in identifying
characteristics of cyber crimes (Tompsett, Marshall, & Semmens, [16]). It is well documented that the
majority of cyber crimes of a particular type originate from a certain location. For example, cyber
crimes related to espionage have been known to originate from China.
The proposed methodology is a four-step process as follows:
Process 1 or P1
The first stage (Figure 3) involves victim profiling. P1 involves identifying the various aspects of an
individual or an organization that attracted criminals (Tennakoon, [15]).
Graph: FIGURE 3 Process 1/ P1 of the proposed methodology.
Process 2 or P2
The second stage (Figure 4) involves identifying the motive behind the attack. A motive is closely
associated with a victim. For example, an attack on government implies that the motive is espionage.
This stage also involves analyzing the digital forensic evidence to deduce possible characteristics.
Graph: FIGURE 4 Process 2/ P2 of the proposed methodology.
Process 3 or P3
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 7/10
This stage involves an empirical analysis on the data and an identification of trends by conducting a
statistical analysis (Figure 5). Criminal behavior and characteristics are identified by analyzing the data
against the above mentioned metrics.
TABLE 1 Cyber Criminal Profiles
Motive Structure Motivation
Skill Level Attack
Attack Method
Novice Fun Thrill Unorganized Low Basic Low to
Freely available tools
Hacktivists Political
Unorganized High Basic to
Low to
Phishing, Spamming,
Unorganized with some
level of collaboration
Medium Intermediate Medium
to High
Spamming, Malware
Cyber Crime
Organized Well Funded High Intermediate
to Advanced
High Malware available in the
underground market
Cyber Spies Espionage
IP Theft
State Sponsored Highly
Organized Well Funded
High Highly
Critical Customized codes, zero
day attacks
Disruption Well Funded Work in small
Medium Basic to
Low to
Graph: FIGURE 5 Process 3/ P3 of the proposed methodology.
Process 4 or P4
This is the final stage and involves building cyber criminal profiles from the characteristics that have
been identified. For example, an extremely skillful attacker that employs zero day exploits to target
defense institutions to extract sensitive information falls under the cyber spy bucket.
Cyber criminals are classified into six profiles (see Table 1).
Hacktivists are politically motivated and target governments, news groups, and companies doing
business with governments. Their motive for hacking is to get their political message across. Most
hacktivist groups are not organized and rely on freely available tools with the intention of conveying their
political message (Nachreiner, [11]). Their skill level can vary from basic to intermediate.
Cyber Criminals
Cyber criminals are driven by financial gains and target consumers and businesses. They are not
organized and their skill level ranges from basic to intermediate.
Cyber Syndicates
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 8/10
They are highly organized, well-funded, and headed by crime organizations. They are responsible for
stealing billions of dollars from consumers and businesses each year and also buy and sell the private
information and intellectual property and trade attack toolkits, zero day exploit code, malware code
(Nachreiner, [11]).
Cyber Spies
Cyber spies are state sponsored and very well-funded. Their motive is espionage and IP theft. They
target government organizations and business dealing with governments to extract sensitive
information. They are highly advanced and create customized codes incorporating previously
undiscovered software vulnerabilities (Nachreiner, [11]). They often leverage the most advanced attack
and evasion techniques into their attack, using kernel level rootkits, stenography, and encryption to
avoid detection (Nachreiner).
This class of hackers has basic skill level and relies on freely available hacking tools. They do this for
fun and entertainment.
Cyber Terrorists
This group is well funded, organized, and engage in hacktivism as well as criminal activity (Bednarz, [
The cyber criminal profiling methodology, as illustrated in Figure 6, must be an interactive process for
accuracy and effectiveness. Investigations are iterative in nature. Initial investigations reveal basic
details. As the investigations moves from basic to advanced stages, more and more information on the
victim is collected, which may help in identifying additional motives that were missed in the initial
investigation. Additional evidence may also be collected providing more data for profile characterization.
Graph: FIGURE 6 Iterative Process.
Cyber criminal profiling must be based on a scientific process. A standard profiling methodology is
required for accuracy, reliability, and effectiveness. The cyber criminal profiling methodology proposed in
this paper is based on a hybrid profiling model that involves both inductive as well as deductive profiling.
This methodology needs to be tested by simulating different scenarios in a lab setting.
1 Color versions of one or more of the figures in the article can be found online at
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 9/10
Annual Report. (2012). Internet Crime Report. Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) , p. 4.
2 Bednarz , A. (2004). Profiling cybercriminals: A promising but immature science. Networkworld.
Retrieved from
3 Benny , D (2007). The uses of inductive and deductive reasoning in investigations and criminal
profiling. BECCA Report , pp. 7 – 9.
4 Broucek , V. , and Turner , P. (2006). Winning the battles , losing the war? Rethinking methodology for
forensic computing research. Journal in Computer Virology , 3 – 12.
5 Donato , L. (2009). An introduction to how criminal profiling could be used as a support for computer
hacking investigations. Journal of Digital Forensic Practice , 2 , 183 – 195.
6 Drummond , D. (2010). A new approach to China. Google Blog. Retrieved from
7 Jahankhani , H. , and Al-Nemrat , A. (2010). Examination of cyber-criminal behavior. International
Journal of Information Science and Management , 41 – 48.
8 Kirwan , G. , and Power , A. (2011). The psychology of cyber crime , 1st edition. IGI Global.
9 Kwan , L. , Ray , P. , and Stephens , G. (2008). Towards a methodology for profiling cyber criminals.
IEEE Computer Society. Proceedings of the 41st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences ,
pp. 3 – 5.
Malby , S. , Mace , R. , Holterhof , A. , Brown , C. , Kascherus , S. , and Ignatuschtschenko , E. (2013).
Comprehensive study on cybercrime. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime , pp. 38 – 39
Nachreiner , C. (2013). Profiling modern hacktivists, criminals and cyber spies. Watchguard Security
Center. Retrieved from
Shinder , D. (2010). Profiling and categorizing cybercriminals. TechRepublic. Retrieved from
Shinder , D. , and Tittel , E. (2002.) Scene of the cybercrime – computer forensics handbook , 1st
edition. Syngress Publishing.
Symantec. (n.d.). What is cybercrime? Symantec. Retrieved from
8/18/2021 Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling: EBSCOhost… 10/10
Tennakoon , H (2011). The need for a comprehensive methodology for profiling cyber-criminals. New
Security Learning. Retrieved
Tompsett , B. C. , Marshall , A. M. , and Semmens , N. C. (2005). Cybrprofiling: Offender profiling and
geographic profiling of crime on the Internet. Computer Network Forensics Research Workshop , p. 1.
Vidalis , S. and Jones , A. (2003). Using vulnerability trees for decision making in threat assessment.
School of Computing Technical Report CS-03-2, School of Computing , University of Glamorgan , pp. 5
– 8.
Wheelbarger , S (2009). CyberForensics. Criminal justice collaboratory. Colby Community College.
Retrieved from
By Arun Warikoo
Reported by Author
Arun Warikoo is a security solutions specialist. He has worked extensively in the private sectors to
improve the security of their critical information systems. His research focuses on improving the
governance around security and developing frameworks on cyber security.
Copyright of Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective is the property of Taylor & Francis Ltd
and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the
copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for
individual use.
EBSCO Connect Privacy Policy A/B Testing Terms of Use Copyright
Cookie Policy
powered by EBSCOhost
© 2021 EBSCO Industries, Inc. All rights reserved.

Call us 24/7:
Calculate your essay price
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

23 k happy customers
9.7 out of 10 satisfaction rate
833 writers active

Real Reviews from our Customers

Academic Writing Service of a Professional Level

Any academic writer who wishes to join our team of professional writers must possess all the following qualities:


To write an exemplary academic paper, you must have good critical thinking skills, possess the proper knowledge of the discipline, and be knowledgeable about applying an academic writing style.

As such we have a rigorous recruitment process. We only collaborate with professional academic writers. We believe in offering the highest quality academic writing services. Our writers pass various grammar and academic writing tests. They have to provide documents about their personal information and credentials to prove their level of expertise.

As a result, our clients receive papers that are thoroughly-researched, properly cited, and written within academic standards. We are proud that any academic writer from our writer's team can complete the paper at a high standard.

We work with the student’s budget because we know that students are usually on a budget majority of the time. We do not compromise on quality because of low prices. On the contrary, we love to foster a good relationship with our clients. That is why we charge our clients reasonable prices, and we are willing to negotiate and work with their budget.

It may be quite disturbing to decide whether to hire an academic writing company. We care about our client’s privacy and confidentiality. We never disclose your information to third parties. We never publish your paper online. You can use our academic writing service without any fear or anxiety.

Many students struggle with writing academic papers. Some barely have time to do their assignments because of their job and family responsibilities. Others have difficulty applying critical thinking skills or meeting time or assignment requirements. Whatever the reason is, you can always have time to do the things you love and other important things. All you need is a reliable and quality academic writing service. Unfortunately, even if you strongly desire to write the paper yourself, you sometimes face unexpected challenges. As we all know, life is unpredictable! Your teacher may be unconcerned about helping students and may not answer your questions. The good news is that there is a way out! You can hire an online academic writer to help you with your assignments. All you need to do is stipulate your paper requirements in the order form, and you can spend your time as you like.

Our Mission

Our company commits towards delivering high-quality custom papers to our clients. We seek to offer reliable essay writing services to our customers in various subject areas. Our customers are very valuable to us. As such, we commit to ensuring that they derive the utmost satisfaction from the essays we deliver. We have a mission to promote our clients' educational and professional lives by providing high-quality essays for their use. We also have a mission to offer a convenient essay writing system where our customers can easily order and pay for the services. We value quality and professionalism in our company.

Get professional help from our brilliant, skilled, and experienced essay writers

We write papers on any subject area, and we also write various types of papers for various purposes. We have a team of able writers who are eager to help our customers with writing services of exceptional quality. We offer custom writing services for customers across the globe and charge affordable prices for our services. We are the best essay writing company offering personalized services to all our customers. We ensure our customers receive maximum satisfaction from the essays we deliver. Our website is the place to be if you are seeking high-quality essays.

By using our academic writing service, we match your paper subject with a writer with a degree in the subject. The writer is able to apply their skills, knowledge, and expertise to the paper. You receive an original, unique, well-research paper, properly cited and formatted. As such, you are assured of a high-quality paper.

Academic Writing Help From Professionals

Truth be told, writing assignments can be stressful and difficult for any student. There is no shame in getting academic writing help. When you search the term “get academic writing help” there are numerous sites that pop up on the results and our website is among them. So, why is it a great idea to choose us?

During your course, your instructor will assign various types of homework. Our academic writers can prepare essays, presentations, speeches, case studies, research papers, dissertations, thesis papers, and more. Our writer’s department is capable of tackling any assignment of any complexity easily. All you need is to give us detailed instructions to help our experts understand the task.After doing so, you can rest assured that everything is in control, and we will deliver a paper of unmatchable quality.

Expert Assignment Help for College/University Students

Are you a college or university student pursuing your Bachelor’s , Masters, PhD, or Doctorate degree? Sometimes juggling schoolwork with work, family and hobbies can seem like a daunting task. You have to sacrifice one or the other. The sole purpose of our website is to alleviate your academic burdens. We ensure that you do not fail in your classes and you get good grades consistently. We understand that there is a need for academic help.

We acknowledge that our clients are not dumb or lazy but only need academic life need help in order to live a balanced life and make ends meet. We make it our core priority to ensure that all assignments are done and submitted before the stipulated deadlines. All our writers are graduates. They are competent in handling the clients’ assignments. We step in to help you with any and all of your assignments. Our assignment help service ensures that you never miss a grade or deadline.

Proceed to order page

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

Affordable prices


$10 page


$13 page


$14 page

Our prices depend on the urgency of your assignment, your academic level, the course subject, and the length of the assignment. Basically, more complex assignments will cost more than simpler ones. The level of expertise is also a major determinant of the price of your assignment.

Calculate price

Cheap essay writing service

If you need professional help with completing any kind of homework, is the right place to get it. Whether you are looking for essay, coursework, research, or term paper help, or with any other assignments, it is no problem for us. At our cheap essay writing service, you can be sure to get credible academic aid for a reasonable price, as the name of our website suggests. For years, we have been providing online custom writing assistance to students from countries all over the world, including the US, the UK, Australia, Canada, Italy, New Zealand, China, and Japan.

Our cheap essay writing service has already gained a positive reputation in this business field. Understandably so, since all custom papers produced by our academic writers are individually crafted from scratch and written according to all your instructions and requirements. We offer APA, MLA, or a Chicago style paper in almost 70 disciplines. Here, you can get quality custom essays, as well as a dissertation, a research paper, or term papers for sale. Any paper will be written on time for a cheap price.

Using our cheap essay writing help is beneficial not only because of its easy access and low cost, but because of how helpful it can be to your studies. Buy custom written papers online from our academic company and we won't disappoint you with our high quality of university, college, and high school papers. Although our writing service is one of the cheapest you can find, we have been in the business long enough to learn how to maintain a balance between quality, wages, and profit. Whenever you need help with your assignment, we will be happy to assist you.

Proceed to order page

Cheap paper writing service provides high-quality essays for affordable prices

It might seem impossible to you that all custom-written essays, research papers, speeches, book reviews, and other custom task completed by our writers are both of high quality and cheap. It is surprising, but we do have some tricks to lower prices without hindering quality.

To start using our services, it’s enough to place a request like “I need a writer to do my assignment” or “Please, write an essay for me.” We have a convenient order form, which you can complete within minutes and pay for the order via a secure payment system. The support team will view it after the order form and payment is complete and then they will find an academic writer who matches your order description perfectly. Once you submit your instructions, while your order is in progress and even after its completion, our support team will monitor it to provide you with timely assistance.

Affordable essay writing service: get custom papers created by academic experts

Hiring good writers is one of the key points in providing high-quality services. That’s why we have entry tests for all applicants who want to work for us. We try to make sure all writers working for us are professionals, so when you purchase custom-written papers, they are of high quality and non-plagiarized.

Our cheap essay writing service employs only writers who have outstanding writing skills. The quality of all custom papers written by our team is important to us; that is why we are so attentive to the application process and employ only those writers who can produce great essays and other kinds of written assignments. All our writers are graduates. They are competent in handling the clients’ assignments. We step in to help you with any and all of your assignments. Our assignment help service ensures that you never miss a grade or deadline.

Plagiarism-free affordable papers

All our cheap essays are customized to meet your requirements and written from scratch. Our writers have a lot of experience with academic papers and know how to write them without plagiarism. Moreover, at our academic service, we have our own plagiarism-detection software which is designed to find similarities between completed papers and online sources. You can be sure that our custom-written papers are original and properly cited.

Our essay writing service has a 0% plagiarism tolerance. We are well aware of the dangers of plagiarism. Plagiarism is academic suicide. Our essay writing service ensures that all papers are original. We do not sell pre-written papers. All papers are written from scratch as per the instructions. We pass our papers through powerful anti-plagiarism software such as SafeAssign and TurnItIn.

Money-back guarantee

Our cheap essay writing service tries to always be at its best performance level, so each customer who pays money for paper writing can be sure that he or she will get what is wanted. On the off chance that you don’t like your order, you can request a refund and we will return the money according to our money-back guarantee.

There can be a number of reasons why you might not like your order. If we honestly don’t meet your expectations, we will issue a refund. You can also request a free revision, if there are only slight inconsistencies in your order. Your writer will make the necessary amendments free of charge. You can find out more information by visiting our revision policy and money-back guarantee pages, or by contacting our support team via online chat or phone.

On-time Delivery

We know how important any deadline is to you; that’s why everyone in our company has their tasks and perform them promptly to provide you with the required assistance on time. We even have an urgent delivery option for short essays, term papers, or research papers needed within 8 to 24 hours.

We appreciate that you have chosen our cheap essay service, and will provide you with high-quality and low-cost custom essays, research papers, term papers, speeches, book reports, and other academic assignments for sale. We beat all deadlines. We can also handle urgent orders with deadlines as short as 1 hour. Our urgent paper writing service does not compromise on quality due to the short deadline. On the contrary, our essay writers have a lot of experience which comes in handy in such situations.

24/7 support

We provide affordable writing services for students around the world. That’s why we work without a break to help you at any time, wherever you are located. Contact us for cheap writing assistance. Our impeccable customer support team will answer all your questions and help you out with any issues.

Proceed to order page
Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code HACK