Instagram Posts of Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations



Dissertation Letter of Intent Template

Revised 2/2020



Student Name: Sylvester A. Clark Sr.


Working Title: Exploring Challenges Nonprofit Organization Leaders and Employees Face While Transitioning from Manual HR Processes to e-HR Processes.



Draft Version: _____ Date: 12/14/2022___________________



RES 8910/8912 Instructor Review:


Approved; may advance to RES 8912

Approved; may proceed to work with Dissertation Chair

Changes requested; must revise and resubmit. Resubmission must include a change

matrix that includes the instructor comments and how each comment was addressed in the revision.



Beginning on the following page, please complete the following sections in this template, using black, 12-point font. Please address all required content.

  • Problem Statement
  • Purpose Statement
  • Importance of the Study
  • Proposed Research Methodology
  • Research Questions (and Hypotheses if study is quantitative)
  • References (must conform to APA 6th edition)

Problem Statement

It is not known why non-profitable organizations do not implement e-HR systems. Technological advancements were already shifting organizations from manual to online and electronic procedures. However, the 2020 pandemic made it clear that online services and the use of technology need to be embraced by every firm, regardless of their for-profit or non-profit goals. Even before the pandemic, authors such as Dessler (2017) believed that human resource management today has shifted from human to electronic contact (Dessler, 2017). Such changes mean that the is kept from web-based operation and application systems.

Changing from manual towards electronic systems are always challenging and costly, but it is especially difficult for non-profit organizations. Nevertheless, the importance of streamlining certain processes for better job performance. One of the main advantages of E-HR is better access to data analysis and management. These changes allow teams to address what is necessary to engage meaningfully with their work (Alleyne & Kakabadse, 2007).

Some researchers believe that non-profit organizations have failed to understand the importance of web-based practices, which has led to the disallowance of universal access throughout the organization (Pynes, 2013). There is a difference between understanding the importance and having enough resources to implement those adoptions. Both of these issues can be seen in non-profit organizations. The speed with which E-HR is progressing leaves organizations at risk that need to implement such technological changes. Organizations that are not changing according to international changes face slow operations and, later on, create an unsafe working environment.

Also, the lack of streamlined HR costs employees time and effort in accomplishing basic tasks, such as data entry and retrieval (Dahlbom, Siikanen, Sajasalo, & Jarvenpaa, 2020). It is expensive for non-profit organizations to transform from manual to e-HR services. However, the lack of implementation has resulted in administrative obstacles, such as a lack of access to data and errors in determining metrics and other variables for time-sensitive and important decisions (Mer & Virdi, 2021).

HR role in NGOs:

NGO is an extensive and unclear term. It shields several civil society organizations, extending from action groups for political activities and educational organizations to sports clubs. Its perfect description now remains disputed. Though it can be claimed that all NGOs can be considered civil society groups, not all civil society groups are NGOs. For NGOs, Human Resource Management targets to create an understanding and assessment of organizational behavior and functioning of medium and small-sized NGOs; organizations are managed through forecasting, executing, and observing events purposefully; to improve the staff performance; form operational management structures.

It stores data concerning training, staffing, employee personal data, payroll, performance supervision, and calculated positioning. The general problem is that these costs are very high, and the specific problem is how to design these applications or software to accommodate the diverse needs of NGOs within limited budgets (Alemdar & Kocaomer, 2020).


Purpose Statement:

The purpose of this exploratory case study is to research the successes and failures of E-HR implementation in non-profit organizational environments to address how this could be done satisfactorily.

The methodology chosen for this research is qualitative, and the qualitative approach is a case study. There are different types of case studies, such as descriptive, explanatory, exploratory, intrinsic, instrumental, and collective case studies. However, an exploratory case study fits best in this research because it will be a necessary tool needed to investigate distinct phenomena characterized by a lack of detailed preliminary research (George, 2021).

The interviews will be semi-structured and open-ended with individual interviewees. However, there will be two focus groups as well in order to discover new aspects and information regarding this research. Both individual, as well as group interviews, will be conducted at a distance to ensure the safety of those interviewees. The purposive sample of the population that will be interviewed for this research will be leaders and employees of different non-profit organizations. However, if purposive samples are insufficient, snowball sampling will be the backup through which the selected participants will be asked to identify other potential subjects.

While it is clear that only some organizations can implement this transition successfully, there is still little known as to why that is the case. Results are aimed at identifying said challenges non-profit leaders and employees face. The participants that will be selected will be leaders and employees that work in the Extra Mile Club in Beaufort, South Carolina. Other than these organizations, employees that are working for a non-profit organization and are in the process of implementing e-tools will also be selected for the interviews.

Importance of Study

As identified above through earlier research, e-HR has become more prevalent among human resource managers. However, some organizations still have profound hurdles and seemingly insurmountable obstacles. A need for more understanding of the adoption of e-HR and its reason among non-profit organizations was also identified. According to previous studies, such organizations are ill-prepared and often unable to successfully continue the transition. The literature regarding the solution towards such hindrances was the gap seen through earlier research. Therefore, a thorough evaluation of prevailing literature in both the extensive and explicit regions of the topic will be done. The introduction and discussion sections of currently written research papers highlighting the subject more thoroughly should be examined to identify these gaps.

According to Bag et al. (2021), E-HR has the potential to completely streamline all organizational and employee goals. E-HR asks for a constant assessment of how to aid employees and if routinizing processes through E-HR might enrich work and continue progress. While obstacles could be blamed on the system, it is typically human error and intervention that prevents E-HR from being successful (Bag, Dhamija, Pretorius, Chowdhury, & Giannakis, 2021). The results may address this gap in understanding by addressing specific obstacles or problematic processes that fully disallow leaders and employees to partake in these processes (Adams, 2021). Ultimately the research expectation is to provide recommendations that could highlight some difficulties and mistakes in the transition process. The paper will highlight novel insight and valuable information that might be helpful to the NGOs in improving the manner of the transition from manual HR to E-HR (Cascio & Boudreau, 2015).

Proposed Research Methodology:

Qualitative research includes gathering and investigating data without a statistical test; the data is non-numerical, like previous research reports, text, audio or video, etc., to comprehend models, feelings, or involvements. The method is very useful in into a problematic situation or causing novel concepts for research. This part of the research will focus on attaining information through semi-structured, open-ended, and informal communication that would be both individuals as well as group interviews.

If the interviews are not possible physically, the interviewees will be asked to communicate through emails, phone calls, or through the last resort, social media platforms. Semi-structured and focus group methods were selected because they will offer a multi-faceted view from the perspective of leaders and employees. Their individual and group views will provide each obstacle these parties face. Data collection will be compiled in NVivo to collect and synthesize data for later analysis.



Research Questions:

RQ1: Why is it that non-profitable organizations do not implement e-HR systems?

RQ2: What are some of the challenges, advantages, or disadvantages that have been faced or might be faced in the future while implementing e-HR services?

RQ3: Why is the Extra Mile Club transforming from manual to e-HR services?

RQ4: How helpful will the transition from manual to e-HR be for the Extra Mile Club?





































Adams, L. (2021). HR Disrupted (2nd ed.). Practical Inspiration Publishing. Retrieved from https:/“>/ work published 2021)


Al-Hawary, S., Mohammad, A., Al-Syasneh, M., Qandah, M., & Alhajri, T. (2020). Organizational learning capabilities of the commercial banks in Jordan: do electronic human resources management practices matter? International Journal of Intellectual Capital, 242-266.


Alleyne, Cheryl & Kakabadse, Andrew & Kakabadse, Nada. (2007). Using the HR intranet: Exploratory analysis of its impact on managerial satisfaction with the HR function. Personnel Review. 36. 295-310.



Ananya Raka Chakraborty, Nur Naha Abu Mansor, Adoption of Human Resource Information System: A Theoretical Analysis, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 75, 2013, Pages 473-478, ISSN 1877-0428.


Armstrong, M. (2016). Armstrong’s Handbook of Strategic Human Resource Management, Sixth Edition.


Bag, S., Dhamija, P., Pretorius, J. H., Chowdhury, A. H., & Giannakis, M. (2021). Sustainable electronic human resource management systems and firm performance: An empirical study. International Journal of Manpower, 43(1), 32-51.


Belachew Lemm, B. (2021). The Role of Local NGOs in Promoting Primary Education: Evidence from Six Local NGOs in Sidama Zone, SNNPRS, Ethiopia.Journal Of Economics And Sustainable Development,12.


Bell, B. S., Lee, S., & Yeung, S. K. (2006). The impact of E-HR on professional competence in HRM: Implications for the development of HR professionals. Human Resource Management, 45, 295- 308.


Cascio, W. F., & Boudreau, J. W. (2011). Investing in people: Financial impact of human resource initiatives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: FT Press.


Dahlborn, P., Siikanen, N., Sajasalo, P., & Jarvenpaa, M. (2020). Big data and HR analytics in the digital era. Baltic Journal of Management. doi:10.1108/BJM-11-2018-0393


Dessler, Gary. (2017). Human resource management (15). London: Pearson.


Edwards, M. R., & Edwards, K. (2019). Predictive HR Analytics: Mastering the HR metric.

George, T. (2021, December 6). Exploratory research | Definition, guide, & examples. Retrieved from


Grobbelaar, A. (2021). The effect of electronic human resources management on employee engagement levels across generational cohorts. Port Elizabeth: Nelson Mandela University.


Klykken, F. (2021). Implementing continuous consent in qualitative research.Qualitative Research, 146879412110143.


Mer, A., & Virdi, A. (2021). Human resource challenges in NGOs: the need for sustainable HR practices.World Review Of Entrepreneurship, Management, And Sustainable Development,17(6), 818.


Pynes, J. E. (2013). Human resources management for public and nonprofit organizations: A strategic approach. Miami, South Florida: Jossey Bass.


Yenieri Alemdar, M., & Kocamer, C. (2021). Reading Instagram Posts of Environmental Nongovernmental Organizations in the Context of Dialogic Principles and Public Relations Models.Connect: Istanbul University Journal Of Communication Sciences.



Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications.




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