â€¢ Learning Objective 10.1: Explain the advantages
and disadvantages of magazine advertising.
â€¢ Learning Objective 10.2: Discuss how magazine
circulation is measured and rates are set.
â€¢ Learning Objective 10.3: List the advantages and
disadvantages of newspaper advertising.
â€¢ Learning Objective 10.4: Describe the major types
of newspapers and how they charge for
â€¢ Learning Objective 10.5: Show how print media
work with new technologies.
Selecting media involves:
â€¢ Understanding the unique characteristics of
â€¢ Determining which medium will be the most
Reach: number of different people exposed, at least
once, to a medium during a given period of time
Frequency: average number of times those people
are exposed to that medium during that period of
â€¢ Messages produced on any printed medium
â€¢ Has more permanence than television or radio
â€¢ Presents more detailed information
â€¢ Important component of the media mix
Media mix: combination of media types that work
together to most effectively deliver an advertiserâ€™s
Pros and Cons of Magazine Advertising
â€“ Authority and believability
â€“ Audience selectivity
â€“ Selling power
â€“ Reader loyalty
â€“ Extensive pass-along
â€“ Merchandising assistance
â€“ Lack of immediacy
â€“ Shallow geographic
â€“ Inability to deliver mass
audiences at a low price
â€“ Inability to deliver high
â€“ Long lead time
â€“ Heavy advertising
â€“ High cost per thousand
â€“ Declining circulations
Special Possibilities with Magazines (1 of 2)
Bleed: color, type, or visuals that run all the way to
the edge of a printed page
Cover position: advertising space on the front inside,
back inside, or back cover pages of a publication,
usually sold at a premium price
Junior unit: large magazine ad placed in the middle
of a page and surrounded by editorial matter
Special Possibilities with Magazines (2 of 2)
Island halves: half-page of magazine space that is
surrounded on two or more sides by editorial matter
and sold at a premium price
Insert: ad or brochure printed by the advertiser and
shipped to the publisher for insertion into a
magazine or newspaper
Gatefold: magazine cover or page extended and
folded over to fit into the magazine, sold at a
Categorization of Magazines:
Consumer magazines: information- or
entertainment-oriented periodicals directed toward
people who buy products for their own consumption
Farm publications: directed to farmers and their
families or to companies that manufacture or sell
agricultural equipment, supplies, and services
Business magazines: target business readers and
include trade publications, industrial magazines, and
Categorization of Magazines:
Local city magazine: caters to upscale, professional
people interested in local arts, fashion, and business
Regional publications: targeted to a specific area of
National magazines: magazines that are distributed
throughout a country
Categorization of Magazines:
Size classification Magazine Full-page ad size
Large Interview 4 col. x 170 lines
9 Â½ x 11 1/3 inches
Flat Time 3 col. x 140 lines
7 x 10 inches
Standard National Geographic 2 col. x 119 lines
6 x 8 Â½ inches
Small or pocket Readerâ€™s Digest 2 col. x 91 lines
4 Â½ x 6 Â½ inches
Considerations When Buying Magazine
â€¢ Mechanical requirements
â€¢ Closing dates or deadlines
â€¢ Circulation and rate-card information
Circulation (1 of 4)
Rate base: circulation figure on which the publisher
bases its rates
Guaranteed circulation: number of copies of a
magazine that the publisher expects to sell;
publisher must refund the advertisers if this figure is
Circulation (2 of 4)
Circulation audit: thorough analysis of circulation
procedures, distribution outlets, and other
Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC): verifies
circulation and other marketing data on magazines
for the benefit of its members
Primary circulation: number of people who receive a
publication through direct purchase or subscription
Circulation (3 of 4)
Secondary (pass-along) readership: number of
people who read a magazine in addition to the
Vertical publication: business publications aimed at
people in a specific industry
Horizontal publications: business publications aimed
at people with job functions that cut across industry
Circulation (4 of 4)
Paid circulation: total number of copies of an
average issue sold through subscriptions and
Controlled circulation: free publication mailed to a
select list of individuals who are in a unique position
to influence the purchase of advertised products
Merchandising Services Provided by
Magazines to Advertisers
â€¢ Special promotions at retail stores
â€¢ Marketing services to help readers find local outlets
â€¢ Response cards that allow readers to request brochures
â€¢ Help handling sales force, broker, wholesaler, and retailer
â€¢ Advance copies for the trade
â€¢ Research into brand preferences, consumer attitudes, and
Dates Affecting Magazine Purchases
Cover date: date printed on the cover of a
On-sale date: date a magazine is issued
Closing date: publicationâ€™s final deadline for
supplying printing material for an advertisement
Reading Rate Cards (1 of 2)
Cost per thousand (CPM): cost of reaching 1,000
people in a mediumâ€™s audience, used to compare the
cost of various media vehicles
Frequency discounts: advertisers earn this by
running advertising repeatedly in a specific time
Reading Rate Cards (2 of 2)
Volume discounts: given for purchasing print space
in bulk quantities
Cash discounts: given for prompt payment
Premium rates: charged for special features; rates
differ for geographic or demographic issues
â€“ Geographic editions: distributed in specific geographic
â€“ Demographic editions: distributed to readers who
share a demographic trait
Pros and Cons of Newspaper
â€“ Mass, local medium
â€“ Comprehensive in scope
â€“ Geographic selectivity
â€“ Selective attention
â€“ Creative flexibility
â€“ An active medium
â€“ A permanent record
â€“ Reasonable cost
â€“ Lack of selectivity
â€“ Short life span
â€“ Low production quality
â€“ Lack of control
â€“ Overlapping circulation
Categorization of Newspapers:
Frequency of Delivery
Daily newspaper: published at least five times a
week, in morning or evening editions
Weekly newspapers: published once a week and
serve readers in small urban or suburban areas or
farm communities with an emphasis on local news
Categorization of Newspapers:
Standard-size newspaper: measures 22 inches deep and 13
inches wide and is divided into six columns
Tabloid newspaper: about half the size of standard-size
newspaper, 14 inches deep and 11 inches wide
Standard advertising unit (SAU): system of standardized
advertisement sizes that is accepted by all standard-size
â€¢ Column inch: basic unit by which publishers bill for
advertising, equal to one vertical inch of column space;
SAU column inch: 2 1/16 inches wide by 1 inch deep
â€¢ 56 standard sizes for newspapers, 32 for tabloids
Categorization of Newspapers:
By type of audience
â€¢ Some newspapers cater to special-interest audiences,
specific ethnic markets, foreign-language groups, or
â€¢ Sunday supplement: newspaper-distributed Sunday
magazine printed by rotogravure on smoother paper
â€¢ Shoppers: free publications consisting almost entirely
of local advertising used by consumers to find dealers
and make price comparisons
Types of Newspaper Advertising (1 of 3)
Display advertising: includes copy, illustrations or
photographs, headlines, coupons, and other visual
â€¢ Reading notice or advertorial: looks like
editorial content, but flagged as advertising to
avoid confusion; may cost more than normal
â€¢ Cooperative (co-op) advertising: sharing of
advertising costs by the manufacturer and the
distributor or retailer
Types of Newspaper Advertising (2 of 3)
Classified ads: arranged under subheads that
describe the class of goods or the need the ads seek
â€¢ Rates based on the number of lines the ad
â€¢ Classified display ads: run in the classified
section of the newspaper but have larger-size
type, photos, art borders, abundant white
space, and color
Types of Newspaper Advertising (3 of 3)
Public notices: announce legal changes in business,
public governmental reports, notices by private
citizens and organizations, and financial reports
Preprinted inserts: advertisements printed in
advance by the advertiser and inserted into a
specific edition, appearing as a separate, smaller
section of the paper
Understanding Newspaper Readership
and Circulation (1 of 4)
Rate card: lists advertising rates, mechanical and copy
requirements, deadlines, and other information
National rate: higher rate charged owing to the added costs
of serving national advertisers
Flat rate: standard rate with no discount allowance
Open rate: highest rate for a one-time insertion into a
Contract rate: special rate offered to local advertisers who
sign an annual contract for frequent or bulk-space purchases
Understanding Newspaper Readership
and Circulation (2 of 4)
Bulk discounts: discounted rates (calculated by
multiplying the number of inches by the cost per
inch) as they use more inches
Frequency discounts: discount earned by running an
ad repeatedly in a specific time period
Earned rate: discount applied retroactively as the
volume of advertising increases throughout the year
Understanding Newspaper Readership and
Circulation (3 of 4)
Short rate: charged to advertisers who, during the year, fail to
fulfill the amount of space for which they have contracted
Combination rates: offered for placing an ad in (1) morning
and evening editions of a newspaper; (2) two or more
newspapers owned by a publisher; or (3) two or more
newspapers affiliated in a newspaper group
Run-of-paper (ROP) advertising rates: newspaperâ€™s
discretionary right to place a given ad on any page or in any
position it desires
Preferred-position rate: higher rate charged for a choice
Understanding Newspaper Readership
and Circulation (4 of 4)
Full position: preferred position near the top of a page or on
the top of a column next to reading matter. Usually
surrounded by editorial text and may cost 25 to 50 percent
more than ROP rates
Color advertising: cost is based on the black-and-white rate
plus a charge for each additional color
Split runs: running two different ads of identical size, but
different content, in the same or different press runs on the
same day to compare effectiveness of different advertising
Form submitted to a newspaper or magazine when
an advertiser wants to run an advertisement, stating
dates on which the ad is to run, its size, requested
position, and rate
Proof copy: Copy of the completed advertisement
used to check for final errors and corrections
â€¢ Most national ads arrive camera ready,
meaning there is no need for a proof copy.
Printed ad cut out and sent by the publisher to the
advertiser as proof of the adâ€™s print quality and proof
that the ad was published
Print Media and New Technologies
Online publications offer ads in the form of:
â€¢ Pop-ups and pushdowns
â€¢ Floating ads and billboards
â€¢ Interstitials and videos
Publishers are looking to increase revenues
generated by digital subscriptions.
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