Spring/Summer 2009 DIMENSIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Volume 37, Number 2 16
Computers have become an important part of young
childrenâ€™s lives (Clements, 1998), both as a source of
entertainment and education. The National Association
for the Education of Young Childrenâ€™s (NAEYC)
position statement on Technology and Young Children
(2006) supports the need for equal access to technology
for all children with attention to eliminating
Some educators have observed that computers may
have created gender inequities in access to and use of
technology (Hartzel, 2003; McNair, Kirova-Petrova, &
Bhargava, 2001, Nelson & Watson, 1991; Sutton,
1991). Studies indicate that gender differences in young
childrenâ€™s access and use of computers may be the
outcome of environmental factors (Kalyanpur & Kirmani,
2005; Volman & Eck, 2001). These are among the findings.
â€¢ Boys from their early years are typically afforded
more computing opportunities than girls.
â€¢ Families with young males are more likely to
own a home computer.
â€¢ Boys are three times more likely than girls to
attend summer computer camp.
â€¢ Teachers favor boys compared to girls in
To successfully avoid this apparent gender-related
digital divide, it is important to address gender inequities
with computer use beginning in early childhood.
This article looks at two major environmental
influencesâ€”childrenâ€™s social orientation and the role of
media and instructional materialsâ€”that contribute to
these gender differences. It also analyses two outcomes of
these environmental influences: differences in use of
computers for work and play and in social interactions
in and around computers. The article concludes by
presenting some strategies that can help reduce gender
bias through appropriate attention to learning styles,
role modeling, selection of software and online activities,
and gender-conscious classroom practices.
Environmental Factors That
Contribute to Gender Differences
Several factors influence how children respond to
technology. Childrenâ€™s social orientation (their exposure
to gender-specific roles, expectations, and attitudes),
and the role of media and educational materials, both
affect young childrenâ€™s access and use of computers.
Young Children Surfing:
Gender Differences in Computer Use
Mubina Hassanali Kirmani, Marcia H. Davis, and Maya Kalyanpur
Why do young females use computers differently than, and in some situations, less often
than males? How can teachers of young children encourage more equitable computer use?
Mubina Hassanali Kirmani, Ed.D, is a Professor in the
Department of Early Childhood Education, Towson
University, Towson, Maryland. She worked as researcher in
the Media Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and
has taught courses on computers and young children. She
has published several articles related to gender inequities
Marcia H. Davis, Ph.D., is an Associate Research
Scientist, Talent Development High Schools for the
Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.
Maya Kalyanpur, Ph.D., is Technical Advisor to the
Special Education Office of the Ministry of Education,
Cambodia. She is formerly a Professor in the Department
of Special Education, Towson University, Towson,
Maryland. Her research has focused on the intersection
of culture and disability, with specific reference to
culturally diverse families and international special
education policy. She has published extensively.
Spring/Summer 2009 DIMENSIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Volume 37, Number 2 17
Gender differences are evident from
an early age. Gender-specific roles,
as defined by societal norms, are
exhibited in the behaviors and
activities of young children (Fagot,
Leinbach, & Boyle, 1994; Kirmani
& Davis, 2000; McNair, KirovaPetrova, & Bhargava, 2001; Pitcher &
Schultz, 1983; Weinraub et al.,
1984). Differences in adult attitudes
toward males and females give cues to
children about gender-specific
roles and stereotypes. In many
cultures, males are expected to
be active and tough while
girls are expected to be pretty
The types of toys and play
activities children are exposed
to further help to embed
gender-specific choices. Ramsey
(2004) notes that toy and
clothing retailers typically have
â€œpinkâ€ aisles filled with dolls,
fashion kits, glittery paints,
and pink and purple outfits
targeted toward females. Other
â€œgrayish-brownâ€ aisles display
action figures, construction
kits, vehicles, war toys, and
guns targeted at males.
Similarly, in many early childhood
classrooms, females mainly occupy
the housekeeping area, cooking and
playing a nurturing role, while
males typically play and construct
with blocks or drive trucks and
tractors at the sand table. Outdoor
play may also reflect gender stereotypes, with females preferring to
swing or engage in interactive play
while males choose riding vehicles
and chasing games.
As Maccoby (2000) points out,
childrenâ€™s early social orientation is
often reflected in educatorsâ€™ and
familiesâ€™ approaches to and use of
technology. Sutton (1991) found
that male children are introduced to
computer technology earlier and
more frequently at home than
females, and that females more
often report being introduced to
computer technology for the first
time in schools.
Although children may observe
computer use in offices and commercial areas outside of school, they are
more likely to find women in lowerlevel computer work (Hartzel, 2003;
Kalyanpur & Kirmani, 2005; Nelson
& Watson, 1991; Shade & Davis,
1997) at secretarial desks and cash
registers, and men doing programming
and analytical work using more creative computer applications.
Teachers play a significant role in
shaping the development of childrenâ€™s
attitudes toward computers. An
early study showed that 80% of
teachers in K-12 classrooms demonstrated some form of gender bias by
calling more on boys to respond to
science, math, and technology-related
questions, and assigning them lead
roles at and around computers
(Wellesley College Center, 1992).
Use of this teaching strategy negatively
influences girlsâ€™ sense of self-esteem
and efficacy in the use of computers
as well as in disciplines such as
mathematics and science. Societal
perceptions tend to equate computers with technological progress and
masculinity (see Kalyanpur &
Young females may have
fewer experiences with computers than their male peers
both at home and at school,
and they may often feel that
â€œcomputers are for boysâ€
(McNair, Kirova-Petrova, &
Bhargava, 2001, p. 52).
Role of Media and
Entertainment and education
environments socialize children
into gender stereotypes. Highly
feminized or masculinized characters are common in movies,
television, computer games,
toys, and clothing. In consumer items
and commercial advertising, genderspecific roles are maintained and
emphasized, with males more often
portrayed in active, professional
roles and females as sex symbols
(Dill & Thill, 2007; McNair, KirovaPetrova, & Bhargava, 2001). In some
promotional materials for education,
boys were presented as competent
users, while girls were more often
included merely for â€œdecorationâ€
(Knupfer, 1998, p. 55).
A study of female main characters
in software found that, out of
41.7% of characters with clearly
identifiable gender attributes, only
12.5% were female (Hodes, 1995).
Photo courtesy of the authors
Entertainment and education environments socialize
children into gender stereotypes. Highly feminized or
masculinized characters are common in movies,
television, computer games, toys, and clothing.
Gender differences are
18 Volume 37, Number 2 DIMENSIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Spring/Summer 2009
A similar study by Sheldon (2004)
focusing on preschool software
found significantly more male
than female main characters. In
game-oriented learning software,
females often remain in the background, playing secondary roles,
while males are in dominant positions, controlling the outcome of the
play (Canada & Brusca, 1992; Dill
& Thill, 2007).
â€¢ Women are portrayed as
helpless beings, as in the
Nintendo game â€œMario
Brothers,â€ where the main
characters Mario and Luigi,
try to rescue the princess.
â€¢ In â€œMousecapades,â€ Minnie
Mouse plays a minor role
and passively follows Mickey
Mouse, who leads the combat
and wins points.
Early studies found that even
when software programs used somewhat gender-neutral characters,
children, particularly males, tended
to assign masculine attributes to
them (Bradshaw, Clegg, & Trayhurn,
1995). Most software, including
instructional software, is still often
structured for high levels of competition, driving winners to reach the
next level of accomplishment by
providing macho-oriented rewards
such as fiery explosions and blasting
sounds. Even when females are
lead heroines, they are displayed in
highly sexualized ways, â€œas objects
for heterosexual male consumersâ€
(Gorski, 2005, p. 37).
Learning materials may provide
similar social cues. Textbooks and
story books further condition children
to accept stereotypical gender roles
by presenting women in more
menial roles, such as secretaries or
medical assistants, while men
are pictured in managerial and
decision-making positions (Agars,
2004; Knupfer, 1998). Essentially,
the kinds of learning experiences
females are exposed to through media
or instructional materials tends to
discourage girls from wanting to
spend more time on computers and
taking ownership of technology, or
even choosing computer-based careers.
Computer Use for
Work and Play
Males and females differ with
regard to their social attitudes,
behaviors, and choice of information
and activities when using computers.
â€¢ Women use computers to
e-mail and maintain relationships, shop, do online-dating,
and seek information on
health and to how to become
more nurturing as parents.
In contrast, men use computers for career enhancement, to
keep in touch with colleagues
and for competitive sports
& Blanca, 2002).
â€¢ Similarly, women were found
to use computers as a tool
to create and maintain
relationships via e-mail
more than men do (Boneva,
Kraut, & Frohlich, 2001).
â€¢ Women use computers to
accomplish tasks with word
processing, graphic design
programs, and communication
tools, while men use computers
as toys for playing, programming, or exploring hardware
systems (Raphael, 2002).
Photo courtesy of the authors
Children view and respond to computers differently. The familiarity of males with
interactive gadgets in play often leads them to approach computers as toys. They like to
explore, tinker, construct, and experiment with computers, whereas females often use
computers more as a tool to complete tasks.
Most software is
Spring/Summer 2009 DIMENSIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Volume 37, Number 2 19
Similar to adults, children also
view and respond to computers
differently by gender. The familiarity
of males with interactive gadgets
in play often leads them to approach
computers as toys. They like to
explore, tinker, construct, and
experiment with computers, whereas
femalesâ€™ limited exposure to technology often results in them using
computers more as a tool to complete
tasks. Again, malesâ€™ preferences for
game-like competitive approaches of
moving up from one level to another
makes them take a more linear path
in their exploration of computers,
whereas females prefer to create
products, such as stories through
multiple paths that use text, pictures,
Studies that examine what children
paid attention to when working
at the computer show marked
differences in how they express and
share information (Boneva, Kraut,
& Frohlich, 2001; Hanor, 1998;
Kirmani & Davis, 2000). In Kirmani
and Davisâ€™ study (see Figure 1),
young males used text mainly to
share knowledge about their interests
and hobbies while females used
designs and drawings to express relationships and emotions. Females
also paid more attention to decorative
details on the screen.
Similarly, Hanorâ€™s preschool
study (1998) found that girls more
frequently valued choices within art
or graphics application programs
that allowed use of color, shapes,
symbols, clip art, and animated
sequences to share their stories or
Children also vary by gender in
the types of information they seek
on the Internet. Kirmani & Davis
(2000) found that females sought
artwork, stories, Beanie BabiesÂ®, and
BarbieÂ® dolls. They were drawn to
programs that offered nurturing
activities such as fashioning and
feeding dolls, or that facilitated
the production of colorful graphics
and drawings. Males, on the other
hand, gravitated to information
on sports, wild animals, and
action games, and sought activities
that involved exploring, constructing, and destroying in fast-paced
Males and females appear to gravitate to computers with different styles.
â€¢ When a computer was available, males were more likely
to approach it than females,
especially on initially entering the room, and were more
assertive in order to access it
(Bray, Brown, & Green,
â€¢ A computer-mediated study
on the social interactions
of 7- and 9-year-olds working
in same or mixed-gender
pairs showed that, at both
ages, mixed-gender pairs
showed more assertive and
less collaborative interaction
than same-gender pairs (Fitzpatrick & Hardman, 2000).
Figure 1. Young males used text mainly to share knowledge about their
interests and hobbies while females used designs and drawings to
express relationships and emotions (Kirmani & Davis, 2000).
Georgeâ€™s writing, age 6
Tiffanyâ€™s picture, age 10
Danielleâ€™s picture, age 7
20 Volume 37, Number 2 DIMENSIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Spring/Summer 2009
â€¢ Females complained about
being put down at the
computer by their male classmates. On the other hand,
females were more likely to
use a computer if it was available for longer periods of time
In other words, in the presence of
male classmates, females may have
fewer opportunities to access and
Peer interactions are key to femalesâ€™
learning and productivity with the
computer as an enabling device.
â€¢ Females enjoyed using computers if they could interact,
not just with the machines,
but also with their peers
(Raphael, 2002). One game
was described as being
â€œnot that funnyâ€ if played
alone (Hanor, 1998, p. 66).
Female interpersonal sharing
at the computer often resulted
in the creation of shared
products and new knowledge
â€¢ Males, on the other hand,
enjoyed playing alone, especially games with virtual
characters, and liked to
compete with the computer,
attempting to beat it at its
own game (Hanor, 1998).
In summary, there are marked
gender differences in access to
hardware and software, social behaviors, work and play styles, and
choices of information and activities.
These differences underscore the
need for families and teachers to
create a gender-responsive computer
environment for both males and
females to optimize their enjoyment
Strategies to Reduce
Three strategies that can help
reduce computer-use gender biasâ€”
creating opportunities for gendersensitive learning styles, providing
real and virtual female role models,
and selecting appropriate software
and online activities for classroomsâ€”
are discussed here.
Recognize GenderSensitive Learning Styles
A collaborative style of learning
has been shown to be important for
females. Providing learning environments where they can work together
increases their motivation to use
computers. Females also benefit if
they are given more time at the computer to experiment with pictures and
sounds, create stories, or express and
share ideas, all of which are seen as
making computers more fun.
Further, in order to facilitate
more efficient outcomes for females,
encourage them to work in singlegender pairs or small groups. This
gives them opportunities to take
turns and play more primary roles at
the computers. Consequently, the
strategy helps build their self-esteem
related to technology use.
Females have different interests
than males and like to work in
environments that are aesthetically
appealing. In line with a contemporary
constructivist approach, technology
can also be learned and applied in
ways that are appealing to females
Photo courtesy of the authors
Females enjoy using computers if they can interact, not just with the machines, but also
with their peers.
21 Volume 37, Number 2 DIMENSIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Spring/Summer 2009
(Papert, 1993). If the machines are
colorful, females may be more attracted
to them and more likely to engage in
the hands-on experience of pulling
apart or restructuring hardware parts,
thus demystifying the technology.
Females appreciate opportunities
to select and use blocks, creative
tools, patterned icons, or designs to
create, construct, and experiment
with as they acquire important
concepts in math, science, and in
Enhance Female Role
The Web can be used to identify
female leaders in many professions
for both children and adults.
Through pictures, sounds, and stories,
young children can view powerful
women from the past and present.
With adult supervision, they might
even communicate with some, such
as authors of childrenâ€™s books,
through visual and audio devices or
in guided chat rooms.
Although gender stereotypes can
be reduced by presenting images of
women working in all kinds of fields
using technology, the problem of
showing competent female computer
teachers may still remain (Shade &
Davis, 1997). Most preschool and
elementary teachers are females and
can be important role models for
younger generations. However, many
female teachers may still have less
confident attitudes about computers.
Educators and female family
members can benefit from more
incentives and time to become more
comfortable in integrating technology
in their teaching, volunteer efforts,
and play at home. Teachers are
urged to invite women who are
computer technicians and engineers
to demonstrate their ease with
computers to children in classrooms.
When adults consistently call upon
females to troubleshoot computer
issues, they convey the message to
children that â€œcomputer knowledge
is not just for boysâ€œ (McNair, KirovaPetrova, & Bhargava, 2001, p. 53).
Select Suitable Software
and Online Activities
The Cyber environment, including
game software and instructional
online activities, is often designed
by males in ways that tend to
exclude females from the main
computer culture (Gorski, 2005).
Several approaches have been
developed in response to the issue of
designing multimedia games for
girls (Raphael, 2002).
â€¢ Often referred to as â€œGame
Girlsâ€ strategy, the first
approach was informed by
feminist theory (e.g. Gilligan,
1982). Activities appealed to
social and sensory interests,
such as collaboration, glamour, and bright colors.
â€¢ The second approach, the
â€œGame Grrlsâ€ strategy,
provided females with
opportunities to participate
on an equal footing with
males, encouraging them to
become assertive â€œfeminine
warriorsâ€ as a means of
empowering them to beat
males at their own games
â€¢ The third approach tried to
seek a middle ground by
identifying interests common
to both females and males,
such as mystery games
and puzzles, and using
animals as gender-neutral
primary characters. This
approach offered open-ended
alternatives that enabled
participants to create their
own virtual reality by choosing
characters and non-linear
pathways to reach a solution
or win the game.
â€¢ The fourth and most recent
approach, suggested by
Raphael (2002), addresses
the broader problem of
in management of information technology projects and
other leadership positions,
and argues the need to
involve more females in
the design of software.
Raphael recommends launching young females into this
pathway by exposing them
to non-stereotypical images
of women in technological
fields. Also, in order to
design software, somewhat
older female students would
be introduced to programming in a non-linear way.
After an introduction to
basic programming codes,
they would be allowed to
continue through multiple
paths, possibly with the use
of sounds, colors, and
shapes. This way, females
can advance in use of technology within learning
contexts that are more
Provide real and virtual
female role models.
software and online
22 Volume 37, Number 2 DIMENSIONS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD Spring/Summer 2009
appealing to them and
become motivated to pursue
In conclusion, gender bias in
computer access and use can begin
at an early age. In order to ensure
equity, it is important to provide
a secure, comfortable, non-hostile
technology environment for young
children (Gorski, 2005). A combination of several strategies that
includes addressing gender-sensitive
learning styles, providing appropriate
role modeling, designing bias-free
software and online activities, and
implementing appropriate teaching
strategies with computers can help
to promote meaningful computer
learning among all young children.
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You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
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