College of Engineering, Design and Physical Sciences
System Modelling and Simulation
Module Leader Haitham Elhussieny
Project and Report
11:59 am UK time Thursday, 5 January 2023
1. Critically evaluate and implement principles of systems approach and analysis.
2. Describe, critically evaluate and appropriately apply manufacturing concepts to real world
industrial systems and to design, plan and solve arising problems that of
such systems encounter.
3. Develop the required skills for modelling, simulating and critically analysing performance of
deterministic and stochastic systems.
4. Acquire the skills to recognise the elements and rules governing supply chains/logistics and reverse
logistics for better management and engineering of these systems.
5. Apply key tools and techniques for planning and critically evaluating the design of enterprise
6. Modelling of interactions and negotiations between components of enterprise systems
7. Demonstrate integrated modelling of key processes within manufacturing systems
8. Use simulation and optimisation techniques to identify improvements for Enterprise integration
9. Preparation of written reports
10. Critically evaluate a range of complex scenarios and make informed decisions.
11. Exercise a high level of initiative and personal responsibility
Every year the assignment for Systems Modelling and Simulation module has a different theme.
For example, in the previous years the assignments had healthcare, banking services,
manufacturing, and logistics themes. This year our assignment is about airport operations
management. All this variation allows you to appreciate how this fundamental subject can be
applied to different problems which fundamentally have similar performance indicators. Enjoy this
Aircrafts arrive at an airport according to an exponential distribution =40 minutes
of time between arrivals.
Upon arrival, the planes would wait in the air for a signal from the control tower before they are
able to land. The airport has two runways, one for landing and the other for taking off.
Upon allocation of the runway, the aircraft lands, the process of landing and clearing the runway
follows a Triangular distribution of TRIA (1, 3, 5) minutes.
The taxi time between the runways and the terminal gates follows an Exponential
distribution of = 10minutes. The passengers and luggage unloading delay time from the aircraft,
follows an Exponential distribution of = 15minutes.
From the total number of all arriving flights at the airport, 20% go to Terminals 1, Terminal 2 takes
30%, and Terminals 3 and 4 each take 25%. Each terminal has a capacity of 5 gates.
Aircraft departures also follow the Exponential distribution of =35 minutes. The ratio of aircraft
departure from each terminal is the same as arrivals (i.e., T1: 20%, T2: 30%, T3: 25%, and T4: 25%).
The loading time for all departing aircrafts at each terminal follows an Exponential
distribution with = 35 minutes.
The runway maintenance team has to check for external objects on the runways they
therefore, conduct routine manual inspections on each Runway. Due to safety guidelines both
runways are closed during the detection. The inspection and cleaning
process takes place every 5.5 hours and follows a Normal distribution with mean of (=15) and
standard deviation of =3. The Meantime between failures follows the wait rule.
In this example ignore passenger check-ins etc.
1. Develop a simulation model with appropriate animations of the airport operation system
focusing on the use of the runways. Simulate the airport operation for 48hr cycle times
(simulation time) and replicate for 5 times without initiating system.
2. On average, what percentage of the time are the runways in the idle or busy state?
3. Discuss the Utilisation of each Runway and Terminals on daily basis during the simulation
4. Display the WIP for arriving planes, departing planes and the total WIP on one plot over a
simulated time of 48hrs (for each simulation run). Do not initialize the statistics between
your simulation runs.
5. Assuming the Level of Sound Exposure from each aircraft is given by a triangular
distribution with values 50, 60 and 100 decibels, display on a plot, over a simulated time of
60hrs, the total number of aircrafts in process that have a sound level above a specified
threshold of 80 decibels. [Hint: You need to look at the WIP, also assign sound levels to
airplanes when they are created]
6. Assuming some of the departure aircrafts (1 percent) require emergency landing due to
technical problem so they have priority in the queue. Please add this to your model and
design and record the total number of aircrafts in process that have an emergency landing.
7. Write a report that explains your modelling approach and process, explaining how key
concepts such as waiting for signal from the control tower were modelled.
8. Discuss the results of your simulation with regard to key performance factors: runway and
terminal utilisation, WIP, noise pollution, waiting times and queues both in the air and on
the ground to access terminals.
9. Offer suggestions of how to improve the performance of this report with respect to the key
performance indicators: runway and terminal utilisation, WIP, noise pollution, waiting
times and queues both in the air and on the ground to access terminals.
Your suggestions should be simulated, and results compared to the original model.
10. The airport management wishes to double the number of aircraft that arrive and depart
from the airport. Offer suggestions on how this could be possible with respect to
maintaining or minimising the emission levels. Discuss your various suggestions by creating
simulation models and comparing the results with one another.
Use Run conditions defined as: Warm-up Period = 12 hours, Replication Length = 72 hours,
and Number of Replication = 5. The system requires initialisation between replications, but
statistics should not be initialised.
Hint: Create arrivals and departures separately. But make sure you dispose the aircrafts after
unloading for arrivals and after take-off for departing aircraft.
Please enclose a printout of the Arenas final Summary Report (*.out) for each part of the
assignment as an appendix to your report. The summary report is automatically generated by
Arena in the same directory that you run and compile your model. If number of pages exceeds 20.
just provide extracts of the replications covering various sections rather than all the content
(appendix should not exceed 20 pages).
Part of the allocated mark for each part is for intuitive modelling approach, design, animation, and
presentation of the simulation models and the report. The value and the results need to be
interpreted and explained.
Ensure that you follow the assignment guidelines for submission which is available on:
Click on Teaching Systems Modelling and Simulation Assignment and Project
Note: if you find part of the assignment text difficult to follow please feel free to contact us for
further explanations. Please put your questions in clear and precise form in an email and we will
endeavour to respond to you as soon as possible.
Annex I: Brunel University Generic Masters-level Grade Descriptors
These generic grade descriptors are intended to be used as a tool throughout the assessment process (in
assessment design, marking/grading, moderation, feedback and appraisal) for any assessment set at
Masters Level in the University. They are designed to show no disciplinary bias and are not intended to act
as surrogate award or award classification descriptors. The grade descriptors should be read in conjunction
with the learning outcomes associated with the assessment.
Work of exceptionally high quality, commensurate with publication in a highly esteemed peer-reviewed
journal. Clearly demonstrates a sophisticated, critical and thorough understanding of the topic. Provides
clear evidence of originality and clearly demonstrates the ability to develop an independent, highly
systematic and logical or insightful argument or evaluation. Demonstrates exceptional ability in the
appropriate use of the relevant literature, theory, methodologies, practices, tools, etc., to analyse and
synthesise at Masters Level. Shows exceptional clarity, focus and cogency in communication.
Grade Band A (A+, A, A-)
Clearly demonstrates a sophisticated, critical and thorough understanding of the topic. Provides evidence
of originality of thought and clearly demonstrates the ability to develop an independent, highly systematic
and logical or insightful argument or evaluation. Demonstrates excellence in the appropriate use of the
relevant literature, theory, methodologies, practices, tools, etc., to analyse and synthesise at Masters Level.
Shows excellent clarity, focus and cogency in communication.
(B+, B, B-)
Clearly demonstrates a well-developed, critical and comprehensive understanding of the topic. Clearly
demonstrates the ability to develop an independent, systematic and logical or insightful argument or
evaluation. Demonstrates a high degree of competence in the appropriate use of the relevant literature,
theory, methodologies, practices, tools, etc., to analyse and synthesise at Masters Level. Shows a high level
of clarity, focus and cogency in communication.
Grade Band C (C+, C, C-)
Demonstrates a critical and substantial understanding of the topic. Demonstrates the ability to develop an
independent, systematic and logical or insightful argument or evaluation. Demonstrates a significant
degree of competence in the appropriate use of the relevant literature, theory, methodologies, practices,
tools, etc., to analyse and synthesise at Masters Level. Provides evidence of clarity, focus and cogency in
Grade Band D (D+, D, D-)
Provides evidence of some critical understanding of the topic. Demonstrates some ability to develop a
structured argument or evaluation. Demonstrates an acceptable degree of competence in the appropriate
use of the relevant literature, theory, methodologies, practices, tools, etc., to analyse and synthesise, but
not at Masters Level. Provides evidence of effective communication.
Grade Band E (E+, E, E-)
Work that demonstrates significant weaknesses, but which provides strong evidence that Grade D is within
the reach of the student.
Work that is unacceptable.
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