A revised edition of A Theory of Justice

Revised Edition
the belknap press of
harvard university press
cambridge, massachusetts
© Copyright 1971, 1999 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
This book is a revised edition of A Theory of Justice,
published in 1971 by Harvard University Press.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Rawls, John, 1921–
A theory of justice / John Rawls. — Rev. ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-674-00077-3 (cloth : alk. paper). —
ISBN 0-674-00078-1 (paper : alk. paper)
1. Justice. I. Title.
JC578.R38 1999
320.011—dc21 99-29110
formulate a conception of justice which, however much it may call upon
intuition, ethical or prudential, tends to make our considered judgments
of justice converge. If such a conception does exist, then, from the standpoint of the original position, there would be strong reasons for accepting
it, since it is rational to introduce further coherence into our common
convictions of justice. Indeed, once we look at things from the standpoint
of the initial situation, the priority problem is not that of how to cope with
the complexity of already given moral facts which cannot be altered.
Instead, it is the problem of formulating reasonable and generally acceptable proposals for bringing about the desired agreement in judgments. On
a contract doctrine the moral facts are determined by the principles which
would be chosen in the original position. These principles specify which
considerations are relevant from the standpoint of social justice. Since it
is up to the persons in the original position to choose these principles, it is
for them to decide how simple or complex they want the moral facts to
be. The original agreement settles how far they are prepared to compromise and to simplify in order to establish the priority rules necessary for a
common conception of justice.
I have reviewed two obvious and simple ways of dealing constructively with the priority problem: namely, either by a single overall principle, or by a plurality of principles in lexical order. Other ways no doubt
exist, but I shall not consider what they might be. The traditional moral
theories are for the most part single-principled or intuitionistic, so that the
working out of a serial ordering is novelty enough for a first step. While it
seems clear that, in general, a lexical order cannot be strictly correct, it
may be an illuminating approximation under certain special though significant conditions (§82). In this way it may indicate the larger structure
of conceptions of justice and suggest the directions along which a closer
fit can be found.
9. SOME REMARKS ABOUT MORAL THEORY 9. Some Remarks about Moral Theory
It seems desirable at this point, in order to prevent misunderstanding, to
discuss briefly the nature of moral theory. I shall do this by explaining in
more detail the concept of a considered judgment in reflective equilibrium and the reasons for introducing it.24
24. In this section I follow the general point of view of “Outline of a Procedure for Ethics,”
Philosophical Review, vol. 60 (1951).
Justice as Fairness
Let us assume that each person beyond a certain age and possessed of
the requisite intellectual capacity develops a sense of justice under normal social circumstances. We acquire a skill in judging things to be just
and unjust, and in supporting these judgments by reasons. Moreover, we
ordinarily have some desire to act in accord with these pronouncements
and expect a similar desire on the part of others. Clearly this moral
capacity is extraordinarily complex. To see this it suffices to note the
potentially infinite number and variety of judgments that we are prepared
to make. The fact that we often do not know what to say, and sometimes
find our minds unsettled, does not detract from the complexity of the
capacity we have.
Now one may think of moral theory at first (and I stress the provisional
nature of this view) as the attempt to describe our moral capacity; or, in
the present case, one may regard a theory of justice as describing our
sense of justice. By such a description is not meant simply a list of the
judgments on institutions and actions that we are prepared to render,
accompanied with supporting reasons when these are offered. Rather,
what is required is a formulation of a set of principles which, when
conjoined to our beliefs and knowledge of the circumstances, would lead
us to make these judgments with their supporting reasons were we to
apply these principles conscientiously and intelligently. A conception of
justice characterizes our moral sensibility when the everyday judgments
we do make are in accordance with its principles. These principles can
serve as part of the premises of an argument which arrives at the matching judgments. We do not understand our sense of justice until we know
in some systematic way covering a wide range of cases what these principles are.
A useful comparison here is with the problem of describing the sense
of grammaticalness that we have for the sentences of our native language.
25 In this case the aim is to characterize the ability to recognize
well-formed sentences by formulating clearly expressed principles which
make the same discriminations as the native speaker. This undertaking is
known to require theoretical constructions that far outrun the ad hoc
precepts of our explicit grammatical knowledge. A similar situation presumably holds in moral theory. There is no reason to assume that our
sense of justice can be adequately characterized by familiar common
sense precepts, or derived from the more obvious learning principles. A
25. See Noam Chomsky, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (Cambridge, Mass., The M.I.T. Press,
1965), pp. 3–9.
9. Some Remarks about Moral Theory
correct account of moral capacities will certainly involve principles and
theoretical constructions which go much beyond the norms and standards
cited in everyday life; it may eventually require fairly sophisticated mathematics as well. Thus the idea of the original position and of an agreement on principles there does not seem too complicated or unnecessary.
Indeed, these notions are rather simple and can serve only as a beginning.
So far, though, I have not said anything about considered judgments.
Now, as already suggested, they enter as those judgments in which our
moral capacities are most likely to be displayed without distortion. Thus
in deciding which of our judgments to take into account we may reasonably select some and exclude others. For example, we can discard those
judgments made with hesitation, or in which we have little confidence.
Similarly, those given when we are upset or frightened, or when we stand
to gain one way or the other can be left aside. All these judgments are
likely to be erroneous or to be influenced by an excessive attention to our
own interests. Considered judgments are simply those rendered under
conditions favorable to the exercise of the sense of justice, and therefore
in circumstances where the more common excuses and explanations for
making a mistake do not obtain. The person making the judgment is
presumed, then, to have the ability, the opportunity, and the desire to
reach a correct decision (or at least, not the desire not to). Moreover, the
criteria that identify these judgments are not arbitrary. They are, in fact,
similar to those that single out considered judgments of any kind. And
once we regard the sense of justice as a mental capacity, as involving the
exercise of thought, the relevant judgments are those given under conditions favorable for deliberation and judgment in general.
I now turn to the notion of reflective equilibrium. The need for this
idea arises as follows. According to the provisional aim of moral philosophy, one might say that justice as fairness is the hypothesis that the
principles which would be chosen in the original position are identical
with those that match our considered judgments and so these principles
describe our sense of justice. But this interpretation is clearly oversimplified. In describing our sense of justice an allowance must be made for
the likelihood that considered judgments are no doubt subject to certain
irregularities and distortions despite the fact that they are rendered under
favorable circumstances. When a person is presented with an intuitively
appealing account of his sense of justice (one, say, which embodies
various reasonable and natural presumptions), he may well revise his
judgments to conform to its principles even though the theory does not fit
Justice as Fairness
his existing judgments exactly. He is especially likely to do this if he can
find an explanation for the deviations which undermines his confidence in
his original judgments and if the conception presented yields a judgment
which he finds he can now accept. From the standpoint of moral theory,
the best account of a person’s sense of justice is not the one which fits his
judgments prior to his examining any conception of justice, but rather the
one which matches his judgments in reflective equilibrium. As we have
seen, this state is one reached after a person has weighed various proposed conceptions and he has either revised his judgments to accord with
one of them or held fast to his initial convictions (and the corresponding
There are, however, several interpretations of reflective equilibrium.
For the notion varies depending upon whether one is to be presented with
only those descriptions which more or less match one’s existing judgments except for minor discrepancies, or whether one is to be presented
with all possible descriptions to which one might plausibly conform one’s
judgments together with all relevant philosophical arguments for them. In
the first case we would be describing a person’s sense of justice more or
less as it is although allowing for the smoothing out of certain irregularities; in the second case a person’s sense of justice may or may not
undergo a radical shift. Clearly it is the second kind of reflective equilibrium that one is concerned with in moral philosophy. To be sure, it is
doubtful whether one can ever reach this state. For even if the idea of all
possible descriptions and of all philosophically relevant arguments is
well-defined (which is questionable), we cannot examine each of them.
The most we can do is to study the conceptions of justice known to us
through the tradition of moral philosophy and any further ones that occur
to us, and then to consider these. This is pretty much what I shall do,
since in presenting justice as fairness I shall compare its principles and
arguments with a few other familiar views. In light of these remarks,
justice as fairness can be understood as saying that the two principles
previously mentioned would be chosen in the original position in preference to other traditional conceptions of justice, for example, those of
utility and perfection; and that these principles give a better match with
our considered judgments on reflection than these recognized alternatives. Thus justice as fairness moves us closer to the philosophical ideal;
it does not, of course, achieve it.
This explanation of reflective equilibrium suggests straightway a number of further questions. For example, does a reflective equilibrium (in the
9. Some Remarks about Moral Theory
sense of the philosophical ideal) exist? If so, is it unique? Even if it is
unique, can it be reached? Perhaps the judgments from which we begin,
or the course of reflection itself (or both), affect the resting point, if any,
that we eventually achieve. It would be useless, however, to speculate
about these matters here. They are far beyond our reach. I shall not even
ask whether the principles that characterize one person’s considered judgments are the same as those that characterize another’s. I shall take for
granted that these principles are either approximately the same for persons whose judgments are in reflective equilibrium, or if not, that their
judgments divide along a few main lines represented by the family of
traditional doctrines that I shall discuss. (Indeed, one person may find
himself torn between opposing conceptions at the same time.) If men’s
conceptions of justice finally turn out to differ, the ways in which they do
so is a matter of first importance. Of course we cannot know how these
conceptions vary, or even whether they do, until we have a better account
of their structure. And this we now lack, even in the case of one man, or
homogeneous group of men. If we can characterize one (educated) person’s sense of justice, we might have a good beginning toward a theory of
justice. We may suppose that everyone has in himself the whole form of a
moral conception. So for the purposes of this book, the views of the
reader and the author are the only ones that count. The opinions of others
are used only to clear our own heads.
I wish to stress that in its initial stages at least a theory of justice is
precisely that, namely, a theory. It is a theory of the moral sentiments (to
recall an eighteenth century title) setting out the principles governing our
moral powers, or, more specifically, our sense of justice. There is a definite if limited class of facts against which conjectured principles can be
checked, namely, our considered judgments in reflective equilibrium. A
theory of justice is subject to the same rules of method as other theories.
Definitions and analyses of meaning do not have a special place: definition is but one device used in setting up the general structure of theory.
Once the whole framework is worked out, definitions have no distinct
status and stand or fall with the theory itself. In any case, it is obviously
impossible to develop a substantive theory of justice founded solely on
truths of logic and definition. The analysis of moral concepts and the a
priori, however traditionally understood, is too slender a basis. Moral
theory must be free to use contingent assumptions and general facts as it
pleases. There is no other way to give an account of our considered
judgments in reflective equilibrium. This is the conception of the subject
Justice as Fairness
adopted by most classical British writers through Sidgwick. I see no
reason to depart from it.26
Moreover, if we can find an accurate account of our moral conceptions,
then questions of meaning and justification may prove much easier to
answer. Indeed some of them may no longer be real questions at all. Note,
for example, the extraordinary deepening of our understanding of the
meaning and justification of statements in logic and mathematics made
possible by developments since Frege and Cantor. A knowledge of the
fundamental structures of logic and set theory and their relation to mathematics has transformed the philosophy of these subjects in a way that
conceptual analysis and linguistic investigations never could. One has
only to observe the effect of the division of theories into those which are
decidable and complete, undecidable yet complete, and neither complete
nor decidable. The problem of meaning and truth in logic and mathematics is profoundly altered by the discovery of logical systems illustrating
these concepts. Once the substantive content of moral conceptions is
better understood, a similar transformation may occur. It is possible that
convincing answers to questions of the meaning and justification of moral
judgments can be found in no other way.
I wish, then, to stress the central place of the study of our substantive
moral conceptions. But the corollary to recognizing their complexity is
accepting the fact that our present theories are primitive and have grave
defects. We need to be tolerant of simplifications if they reveal and approximate the general outlines of our judgments. Objections by way of
counterexamples are to be made with care, since these may tell us only
what we know already, namely that our theory is wrong somewhere. The
important thing is to find out how often and how far it is wrong. All
theories are presumably mistaken in places. The real question at any
given time is which of the views already proposed is the best approximation overall. To ascertain this some grasp of the structure of rival theories
26. I believe that this view goes back in its essentials to Aristotle’s procedure in the Nicomachean
Ethics. See W. F. R. Hardie, Aristotle’s Ethical Theory, ch. III, esp. pp. 37–45. And Sidgwick thought
of the history of moral philosophy as a series of attempts to state “in full breadth and clearness those
primary intuitions of Reason, by the scientific application of which the common moral thought of
mankind may be at once systematized and corrected.” The Methods of Ethics, pp. 373f. He takes for
granted that philosophical reflection will lead to revisions in our considered judgments, and although
there are elements of epistemological intuitionism in his doctrine, these are not given much weight
when unsupported by systematic considerations. For an account of Sidgwick’s methodology, see
J. B. Schneewind, “First Principles and Common Sense Morality in Sidgwick’s Ethics,” Archiv für
Geschichte der Philosophie, Bd. 45 (1963).
9. Some Remarks about Moral Theory

Call us 24/7:
Calculate your essay price
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

23 k happy customers
9.7 out of 10 satisfaction rate
833 writers active

Real Reviews from our Customers

Academic Writing Service of a Professional Level

Any academic writer who wishes to join our team of professional writers must possess all the following qualities:


To write an exemplary academic paper, you must have good critical thinking skills, possess the proper knowledge of the discipline, and be knowledgeable about applying an academic writing style.

As such we have a rigorous recruitment process. We only collaborate with professional academic writers. We believe in offering the highest quality academic writing services. Our writers pass various grammar and academic writing tests. They have to provide documents about their personal information and credentials to prove their level of expertise.

As a result, our clients receive papers that are thoroughly-researched, properly cited, and written within academic standards. We are proud that any academic writer from our writer's team can complete the paper at a high standard.

We work with the student’s budget because we know that students are usually on a budget majority of the time. We do not compromise on quality because of low prices. On the contrary, we love to foster a good relationship with our clients. That is why we charge our clients reasonable prices, and we are willing to negotiate and work with their budget.

It may be quite disturbing to decide whether to hire an academic writing company. We care about our client’s privacy and confidentiality. We never disclose your information to third parties. We never publish your paper online. You can use our academic writing service without any fear or anxiety.

Many students struggle with writing academic papers. Some barely have time to do their assignments because of their job and family responsibilities. Others have difficulty applying critical thinking skills or meeting time or assignment requirements. Whatever the reason is, you can always have time to do the things you love and other important things. All you need is a reliable and quality academic writing service. Unfortunately, even if you strongly desire to write the paper yourself, you sometimes face unexpected challenges. As we all know, life is unpredictable! Your teacher may be unconcerned about helping students and may not answer your questions. The good news is that there is a way out! You can hire an online academic writer to help you with your assignments. All you need to do is stipulate your paper requirements in the order form, and you can spend your time as you like.

Our Mission

Our company commits towards delivering high-quality custom papers to our clients. We seek to offer reliable essay writing services to our customers in various subject areas. Our customers are very valuable to us. As such, we commit to ensuring that they derive the utmost satisfaction from the essays we deliver. We have a mission to promote our clients' educational and professional lives by providing high-quality essays for their use. We also have a mission to offer a convenient essay writing system where our customers can easily order and pay for the services. We value quality and professionalism in our company.

Get professional help from our brilliant, skilled, and experienced essay writers

We write papers on any subject area, and we also write various types of papers for various purposes. We have a team of able writers who are eager to help our customers with writing services of exceptional quality. We offer custom writing services for customers across the globe and charge affordable prices for our services. We are the best essay writing company offering personalized services to all our customers. We ensure our customers receive maximum satisfaction from the essays we deliver. Our website is the place to be if you are seeking high-quality essays.

By using our academic writing service, we match your paper subject with a writer with a degree in the subject. The writer is able to apply their skills, knowledge, and expertise to the paper. You receive an original, unique, well-research paper, properly cited and formatted. As such, you are assured of a high-quality paper.

Academic Writing Help From Professionals

Truth be told, writing assignments can be stressful and difficult for any student. There is no shame in getting academic writing help. When you search the term “get academic writing help” there are numerous sites that pop up on the results and our website is among them. So, why is it a great idea to choose us?

During your course, your instructor will assign various types of homework. Our academic writers can prepare essays, presentations, speeches, case studies, research papers, dissertations, thesis papers, and more. Our writer’s department is capable of tackling any assignment of any complexity easily. All you need is to give us detailed instructions to help our experts understand the task.After doing so, you can rest assured that everything is in control, and we will deliver a paper of unmatchable quality.

Expert Assignment Help for College/University Students

Are you a college or university student pursuing your Bachelor’s , Masters, PhD, or Doctorate degree? Sometimes juggling schoolwork with work, family and hobbies can seem like a daunting task. You have to sacrifice one or the other. The sole purpose of our website is to alleviate your academic burdens. We ensure that you do not fail in your classes and you get good grades consistently. We understand that there is a need for academic help.

We acknowledge that our clients are not dumb or lazy but only need academic life need help in order to live a balanced life and make ends meet. We make it our core priority to ensure that all assignments are done and submitted before the stipulated deadlines. All our writers are graduates. They are competent in handling the clients’ assignments. We step in to help you with any and all of your assignments. Our assignment help service ensures that you never miss a grade or deadline.

Proceed to order page

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

Affordable prices


$10 page


$13 page


$14 page

Our prices depend on the urgency of your assignment, your academic level, the course subject, and the length of the assignment. Basically, more complex assignments will cost more than simpler ones. The level of expertise is also a major determinant of the price of your assignment.

Calculate price

Cheap essay writing service

If you need professional help with completing any kind of homework, is the right place to get it. Whether you are looking for essay, coursework, research, or term paper help, or with any other assignments, it is no problem for us. At our cheap essay writing service, you can be sure to get credible academic aid for a reasonable price, as the name of our website suggests. For years, we have been providing online custom writing assistance to students from countries all over the world, including the US, the UK, Australia, Canada, Italy, New Zealand, China, and Japan.

Our cheap essay writing service has already gained a positive reputation in this business field. Understandably so, since all custom papers produced by our academic writers are individually crafted from scratch and written according to all your instructions and requirements. We offer APA, MLA, or a Chicago style paper in almost 70 disciplines. Here, you can get quality custom essays, as well as a dissertation, a research paper, or term papers for sale. Any paper will be written on time for a cheap price.

Using our cheap essay writing help is beneficial not only because of its easy access and low cost, but because of how helpful it can be to your studies. Buy custom written papers online from our academic company and we won't disappoint you with our high quality of university, college, and high school papers. Although our writing service is one of the cheapest you can find, we have been in the business long enough to learn how to maintain a balance between quality, wages, and profit. Whenever you need help with your assignment, we will be happy to assist you.

Proceed to order page

Cheap paper writing service provides high-quality essays for affordable prices

It might seem impossible to you that all custom-written essays, research papers, speeches, book reviews, and other custom task completed by our writers are both of high quality and cheap. It is surprising, but we do have some tricks to lower prices without hindering quality.

To start using our services, it’s enough to place a request like “I need a writer to do my assignment” or “Please, write an essay for me.” We have a convenient order form, which you can complete within minutes and pay for the order via a secure payment system. The support team will view it after the order form and payment is complete and then they will find an academic writer who matches your order description perfectly. Once you submit your instructions, while your order is in progress and even after its completion, our support team will monitor it to provide you with timely assistance.

Affordable essay writing service: get custom papers created by academic experts

Hiring good writers is one of the key points in providing high-quality services. That’s why we have entry tests for all applicants who want to work for us. We try to make sure all writers working for us are professionals, so when you purchase custom-written papers, they are of high quality and non-plagiarized.

Our cheap essay writing service employs only writers who have outstanding writing skills. The quality of all custom papers written by our team is important to us; that is why we are so attentive to the application process and employ only those writers who can produce great essays and other kinds of written assignments. All our writers are graduates. They are competent in handling the clients’ assignments. We step in to help you with any and all of your assignments. Our assignment help service ensures that you never miss a grade or deadline.

Plagiarism-free affordable papers

All our cheap essays are customized to meet your requirements and written from scratch. Our writers have a lot of experience with academic papers and know how to write them without plagiarism. Moreover, at our academic service, we have our own plagiarism-detection software which is designed to find similarities between completed papers and online sources. You can be sure that our custom-written papers are original and properly cited.

Our essay writing service has a 0% plagiarism tolerance. We are well aware of the dangers of plagiarism. Plagiarism is academic suicide. Our essay writing service ensures that all papers are original. We do not sell pre-written papers. All papers are written from scratch as per the instructions. We pass our papers through powerful anti-plagiarism software such as SafeAssign and TurnItIn.

Money-back guarantee

Our cheap essay writing service tries to always be at its best performance level, so each customer who pays money for paper writing can be sure that he or she will get what is wanted. On the off chance that you don’t like your order, you can request a refund and we will return the money according to our money-back guarantee.

There can be a number of reasons why you might not like your order. If we honestly don’t meet your expectations, we will issue a refund. You can also request a free revision, if there are only slight inconsistencies in your order. Your writer will make the necessary amendments free of charge. You can find out more information by visiting our revision policy and money-back guarantee pages, or by contacting our support team via online chat or phone.

On-time Delivery

We know how important any deadline is to you; that’s why everyone in our company has their tasks and perform them promptly to provide you with the required assistance on time. We even have an urgent delivery option for short essays, term papers, or research papers needed within 8 to 24 hours.

We appreciate that you have chosen our cheap essay service, and will provide you with high-quality and low-cost custom essays, research papers, term papers, speeches, book reports, and other academic assignments for sale. We beat all deadlines. We can also handle urgent orders with deadlines as short as 1 hour. Our urgent paper writing service does not compromise on quality due to the short deadline. On the contrary, our essay writers have a lot of experience which comes in handy in such situations.

24/7 support

We provide affordable writing services for students around the world. That’s why we work without a break to help you at any time, wherever you are located. Contact us for cheap writing assistance. Our impeccable customer support team will answer all your questions and help you out with any issues.

Proceed to order page
Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.

Order your essay today and save 30% with the discount code HACK